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Monument Number 192815

Hob Uid: 192815
Location :
North Somerset
Clevedon
Grid Ref : ST3909070690
Summary : An Iron Age promontory bivallate hillfort, visible as linear earthwork banks and ditches, were mapped from aerial photographs taken in 1946 and 1950. Located on Wain's Hill in west Clevedon, the hillfort is centred at ST 3908 7067. The hillfort has an irregular interior with maximum dimensions of 210m from north-south and 175m from east-west and is defined by steep natural slopes to the south, north and west, and by two ramparts to the east. Within the fort's enclosure, a block of Medieval and/or Post Medieval ridge and furrow is visible as earthworks. The two parallel linear earthwork ramparts are aligned north-south, separated by a ditch and with sections of a second ditch sited on the outside (east) of the hillfort. The larger of the two, the inner rampart bank, is between 8 and 12 metres wide and extends north-south for about 210 metres. The less defined outer rampart to the east is separated from the first by a ditch between 8 and 11 metres wide. The rampart is visible as two sections: the first is about 8 metres wide and 67 metres long and the second is about 100 metres long and between 2 and 3 metres wide. Although described previously as univallate, the 1st edition of the 1:2500 scale OS map dated 1884-1885 clearly shows two earthwork ramparts. The earthwork ramparts may have originally been longer, but appear to have been truncated by the construction of Poets Walk around the fort's perimeter. Aerial photographs taken in 1985 show that the inner rampart is visible, surviving as an earthwork bank, but that the ditch and outer rampart have been covered by woodland scrub and the ridge and furrow block is no longer visible. Two Post Medieval pillow mounds formerly described as part of this entry are now recorded separately as ST 37 SE 40 and ST 37 SE 41.
More information : [ST 39107067] CAMP [G.T.] (1)

[ST 39137061] MOUND [O.E.] (2)

A promontory fort, on Wain's Hill, Clevedon, has a rampart on the east formed by a bank, 5 feet high, with an outer ditch. There are three pillow-mounds in the area of the fort. (3)

The single rampart of the promontory fort is in poor condition. There are pillow mounds at ST 39137061, ST 39027062, and ST 38997062.
Surveyed at 1/2500. (4)

No change. (5)

The fort has been damaged by wartime installations and paths. The single rampart runs N-S across the east side of the promontory at the top of the slope down to the saddle, with a terrace below which may be the filled up ditch. At the south the earthworks are confused, the main rampart turning to the east to flank an apparent entrance with its south side. There are traces of drystone walling on the bank at its north end. (See ST 37 SE 7 for Romano-British pottery from this area). (6-7)

Additional reference. (8)

ST 391 706. Wains Hill. Listed in gazetteer as a univallate hillfort. (9)

Wain's hill is a triangular promontory of 2.5 ha, rising to about 34m OD. On the E or landward side it is bounded by a steep natural slope, 15m high, which terminates at the N and S upon cliffs which form the NW and SW sides of the promontory. The flattish top of the hill occupies 1 ha from which there are moderate slopes to the cliffs. Defence is related solely to the landward approach. Here traces of a rampart bank along the crest of the natural hillslope exist accentuated by scarping. At the base of this steep scarp a terrace may represent an infilled ditch. At the outer edge of the terrace there exists another band of scarping surmounted at the northern extremity by the remnants of a bank. This second or lower scarp is not so distinct as the upper but the impression is of a double rampart defence across the neck of the promontory from ST 39147060 to ST 39177079.
The rampart bank may never have been large. The fragmentory lengths that remain are from 2.5m to 4m wide and 0.3m to 0.8m high on the inner face. They have a rubble content and, at the northern end there are traces of vertical facing. The upper band of scarping is 9m wide and 3m to 5m high; the terrace at its foot is from 3m to 7m wide and the scarping below that 10m to 14m wide and 2m to 3m high.
The entrance to the fort may be a 3m gap near the southern end at ST 39147059. Here the upper scarp makes an inward turn and fades while the southern side of the entrance consists of a mound 7m long and 0.6m high. The lower rampart scarp fades to a series of small amorphous terraces before reaching the entrance. There is no distinct hollow through the gap, but the hillside has been cut into to produce a terrace for the modern metalled track that leads onto Wain's Hill, running obliquely across the contours as probably did the original approach.
The interior, under rough pasture exhibits no obvious platforms or other evidence of habitation. The ramparts are covered with bushed and small trees and the rather poor condition of the earthworks seems more the result of natural erosion possibly some agricultural activity, rather than wartime depredation.
On the southern part of Wain's Hill three probably medieval pillow mounds are set out on the slope between the flat top and the cliffs proper. All are of turf covered, small stone, construction. ST 39137061. This mound is set at a slight angle to the contours. It is 28m long, 7m wide and 0.4m high. On the upper NW side the ditch is 2m wide and 0.4m deep; on the SE side the ditch is 2m wide and barely 0.2m deep. Both are open ended.
ST 39027062. Aligned with the contour, the mound is 25m long, 7m wide, and 0.4m high on the upper N side and 1.5m high on the lower side. A 2m wide ditch has been formed, only on the N, by cutting into the hillside to a depth of 0.5m, and later quarrying has destroyed its eastern end.
ST 38997062. A mound in poor condition, aligned with a steep slope. It is 15m long, 3m wide and 0.2m high with traces of side ditches 1.5m wide and 0.1m deep. (10)

An Iron Age promontory bivallate hillfort, visible as linear earthwork banks and ditches, were mapped from aerial photographs taken in 1946 and 1950. Located on Wain's Hill in west Clevedon, the hillfort is centred at ST 3908 7067. The hillfort has an irregular interior with maximum dimensions of 210m from north-south and 175m from east-west and is defined by steep natural slopes to the south, north and west, and by two ramparts to the east. Within the fort's enclosure, a block of Medieval and/or Post Medieval ridge and furrow is visible as earthworks. The two parallel linear earthwork ramparts are aligned north-south, separated by a ditch and with sections of a second ditch sited on the outside (east) of the hillfort. The larger of the two, the inner rampart bank, is between 8 and 12 metres wide and extends north-south for about 210 metres (ST 3916 7078 to ST 3914 7058). The less defined outer rampart to the east is separated from the first by a ditch between 8 and 11 metres wide. The rampart is visible as two sections: the first is about 8 metres wide and 67 metres long and the second is about 100 metres long and between 2 and 3 metres wide. Although described previously as univallate, the 1st edition of the 1:2500 scale OS map dated 1884-1885 clearly shows two earthwork ramparts. The earthwork ramparts may have originally been longer, but appear to have been truncated by the construction of Poets Walk around the fort's perimeter. Aerial photographs taken in 1985 show that the inner rampart is visible, surviving as an earthwork bank, but that the ditch and outer rampart have been covered by woodland scrub and the ridge and furrow block is no longer visible. Two Post Medieval pillow mounds formerly described as part of this entry are now recorded separately as ST 37 SE 40 and ST 37 SE 41. (11-15)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1962
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Source Number : 2
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1930 Prov.
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Source Number : 10
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : RCHME Field Investigation 17-FEB-1987 NV Quinnell
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Source Number : 11
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : RAF CPE/UK/1869 3092 04-DEC-1946
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Source Number : 12
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : RAF F20/541/553 3036 04-JUN-1950
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Source Number : 13
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR OS/69382 105-106 31-JUL-1969
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Source Number : 14
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR OS/85062 108-109 29-MAY-1985
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Source Number : 15
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 1:2500 Somerset 1884-1885
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Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : MS. Notes J.A. Davies 1927-30 Vol 4 p119 (A.O. Library)
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Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 NVQ 09-APR-62
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Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F2 JP 17-FEB-65
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Source Number : 6
Source : Hillfort and hill-top settlement in Somerset in the first to eighth centuries A.D.
Source details :
Page(s) : 231
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Vol(s) : 91
Source Number : 7
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Bristol ARG Bull 5 No 6 1975 PH Checklist p159 (J Bagnall)
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Source Number : 8
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Ancient Ewks & Camps of Somerset 1924 pp142-3 illus (E Burrow)
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Source Number : 8A
Source : Wain's Hill/ink survey
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Source Number : 9
Source : British Hillforts: an index
Source details :
Page(s) : 200
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Vol(s) : 62

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Iron Age
Display Date : Iron Age
Monument End Date : 43
Monument Start Date : -800
Monument Type : Promontory Fort, Bivallate Hillfort, Hillfort, Rampart, Bank (Earthwork), Ditch
Evidence : Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Medieval
Monument End Date : 1540
Monument Start Date : 1066
Monument Type : Pillow Mound
Evidence : Earthwork

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 22852
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : ST 37 SE 1
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1465843
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1465845
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1427650
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON ST 37 SE 1
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1962-04-09
End Date : 1962-04-09
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON ST 37 SE 1
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1965-02-17
End Date : 1965-02-17
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: OS SWEEPS
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1983-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CLEVEDON EXTENSIVE URBAN SURVEY
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, GLOUCESTERSHIRE COUNTY COUNCIL: SEVERN ESTUARY NMP, RAPID COASTAL ZONE ASSESSMENT SURVEY
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2006-04-10
End Date : 2008-11-01