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Historic England Research Records

Barnard Castle

Hob Uid: 19875
Location :
County Durham
Barnard Castle
Grid Ref : NZ0491016410
Summary : A multi-phase castle, probably originally built as a ringwork by Guy de Balliol circa 1095, later fortified as a shell keep castle between about 1130-1200. The form of the 12th century castle was tith the Inner Ward in the north-west corner of the site above the River Tees, with a Middle Ward to the south of this and the Town Ward courtyard to the east of these two; further south adjaced to the Middle and Town Wards was the Outer Ward. Further construction occurred between about 1329-1380. From about 1230 to 1329 it saw a flourishing period as a great household of the Balliols, a family with high dynastic aspirations and political influence in both northern England and Scotland, particularly under both John Balliol the Elder and the Younger. Later it was a castle of the earls of Warwick (the Beauchcamps) and a Royal Castle. It was in disrepair through the 15th and 16th centuries, partly as a matter of official royal policy for ruling the north: it was then partly dismantled in the 17th century. The castle is in the care of English Heritage.
More information : (Centred NZ 0491 1641) Castle (NR) (1)

NZ 049 165. Barnard Castle - scheduled. (2) (3)

Parts of the castle have been renovated by Ministry of Works.
Revised on 1:1250 CR field document. (4)

Trial excavations (1974) revealed a square tower, 3.0 m x 3.5 m
internally, built in the 14th century at the junction of the Town
Ward south curtain wall and the Middle Ward east curtain wall which were built at the same time. (5)

Barnard Castle, probably built by Guy de Baliol, c.1095. It initially
consisted of a ring work, now the inner ward of the present castle. Excavation uncovered an aisled hall and a stone gatehouse. The great stone enceinte was built by Bernard de Baliol the elder before 1135. The ringwork was converted into the inner ward. The town ward was excavated 1974-6 and the inner ward 1976-80. (6-8)

Additional reference. (9)

The fabric and history of the castle is documented comprehensively in the English Heritage Guidebook. (10)

Existing survey revised by RCHME during a survey of scheduled
monuments in County Durham.

Certain earthworks not previously recorded were noted during
fieldwork in the Outer Ward in the southern part of the castle. These comprise a trackway no more than 0.3 m deep, which may have linked Constable Tower to the site of the Chapel of St Margaret, as recorded by Authority 10 (p.25); what is probably a broad natural scarp running from NW to SE across the ward, which is truncated by a small crescentic scarp in the NW; and finally in the SW what may be tumble from a wall enclosing the Ward and standing to a height of 0.9 m. The Outer Ward functioned as the farm of the castle and seems to have
remained relatively undeveloped, therefore some of these features may be contemporary with the occupation of the castle. Geophysical survey of this area could confirm these suggestions. (11)

Consolidated and displayed ruins of castle, partly excavated.
Listed Grade I.

Former chapel in outer ward of the Castle, with wall attached.
Listed Grade II. (12)

NZ 0491 1640. Barnard Castle: ringwork, shell keep castle, chapel and dovecote. Scheduled RSM No 23222. (13)

Listed by Cathcart King. (14)

Additional references. (15,16)

The castle became a royal possession when Richard III became king, through his wife, Anne Neville. (17)

Major work of synthesis published 2007. The two volume report looks at perceptions of the site, its place in the wider geographical and political setting, the stages development of the castle, main phases of contsruction and stagnation gained through looking at documentary sources, excavation and building recording. In the second volume the material culture/finds from the site are also considered. Both volumes are illustrated with numerous reproductions of historic images, line drawings and maps. (18)

2018 aerial reconnaissance photography revealed numerous features visible as parchmarks within the grounds of the castle. These mostly notably include buried pathways relating to the 'Castle Garden' of the mid-20th century, perhaps established when the castle was first opened to the public.
(19)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 1:1250 map 1976
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 1
Source : Oblique aerial photograph reference number
Source details : 34060_004 26-JUL-2018
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : Barnard Castle, Durham
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 11
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : Peter Topping/29-AUG-1991/RCHME: Durham SAMs Project.
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 12
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Teesdale, 28-NOV-1994
Page(s) : 193-195
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 770-1
Source Number : 13
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 05-Dec-94
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 14
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the islands. Volume I : Anglesey - Montgomery
Source details :
Page(s) : 134
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1
Source Number : 15
Source : English Heritage book of castles
Source details :
Page(s) : 12,53,80,125
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 16
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : DOE Guide to Barnard Castle (A Saunders)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1984
Source Number : 17
Source : The history of the King's Works, volume 2 : the Middle Ages
Source details :
Page(s) : 558
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 18
Source : Acts of perception: a Study of Barnard Castle in Teesdale, Volumes I-II; Englishheritage and the Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumberland; Research Report 6, 2007
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number :
Source : Barnard Castle/ink survey
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Ancient monuments in England : a list prepared by the Department of the Environment, corrected to 31st December 1971
Source details :
Page(s) : 88
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : `Barnard Castle' 1971 DOE pamphlet (A D Saunders)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : ISSainsbury/26-SEP-1974/OS Archaeology Division Field Investigator
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : Council for British Archaeology Group 3: Archaeological newsbulletin
Source details : D Austin
Page(s) : 05-Jun
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 09-Jan-75
Source Number : 6
Source : Journal of the British Archaeological Association
Source details : D Austin
Page(s) : 50-72
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 132, 1979
Source Number : 7
Source : Journal of the British Archaeological Association
Source details : D Austin
Page(s) : 74-96
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 13, 1980
Source Number : 8
Source : Council for British Archaeology: Calendar of excavations
Source details :
Page(s) : 122
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : Jan/Feb 1981
Source Number : 9
Source : Medieval military architecture in England. Volume 1
Source details : plan
Page(s) : 204-213
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : DU 1
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Durham)
External Cross Reference Number : 1970
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 23222
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 388833
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 388834
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : EH Property Number
External Cross Reference Number : 116
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1218822
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1282722
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1007505
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NZ 01 NW 2
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, BARNARD CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1956-01-01
End Date : 1956-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BARNARD CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1963-01-01
End Date : 1964-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BARNARD CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1968-01-01
End Date : 1968-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BARNARD CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1974-01-01
End Date : 1981-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 01 NW 2
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1974-09-26
End Date : 1974-09-26
Associated Activities : Primary, THE BANK/GRAY LANE, BARNARD CASTLE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1978-01-01
End Date : 1978-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ST MARGARET'S CHAPEL, BARNARD CASTLE
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: DURHAM SAMS PROJECT
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1991-06-01
End Date : 1991-12-01
Associated Activities : Primary, EAST CURTAIN OF TOWN WARD, BARNARD CASTLE
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, KING'S HEAD, HORSEMARKET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, KING'S HEAD, HORSEMARKET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BARNARD CASTLE ACCESS ROAD
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BARNARD CASTLE: SITE ADMISSIONS BUILDING
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2006-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT 22 HORSEMARKET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HE AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE (NORTH): 2018-19
Activity type : AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE
Start Date : 2018-04-01
End Date : 2019-03-31