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Historic England Research Records

Berkeley Castle

Hob Uid: 201626
Location :
Gloucestershire
Stroud
Berkeley
Grid Ref : ST6847098970
Summary : Late 11th century castle rebuilt in the mid 12th century with 13th century and mid 14th century alterations. Excavations in 1938 have located much of the castle's layout including walls and buildings. Castle keep, with curtain wall and inner bailey. Late 11th century, altered mid 12th century and mid 14th century . Original circular keep to north west begun circa 1067 by Fitz Osborn, Earl of Hereford, with base of shell keep remaining of this period. Shell keep enlarged 1153, Curtain wall to east and south built 1160-90, including walls of Great Hall, and altered to south west in 14th century . The whole castle is in an original and good state of preservation and retains most original features down to doors, arrow slits and windows, iron catches etc. Interior completely remodelled 1340-50 by Thomas, Lord Berkeley, although the work of this period only survives in the inner bailey. Remained largely unaltered until 1920s when 8th Earl of Berkeley modernised and altered the interior and installed many artefacts from elswhere, for example fireplaces, stained glass. Local pink, grey and yellow Severn sandstone
More information : (ST 68529896) Berkeley Castle (NR) (1)

The 12th century castle, built on the possible site of an 11th century fort, has an ovoid shell keep with two baileys. The inner bailey has ranges of buildings of the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries still in existence, but of the outer bailey only the early 14th century gate-house remains (2), although excavation in 1938 revealed traces of walls and buildings (3). (2-3)

Of the parks belonging to Berkeley Castle, Whitley or Whitecliffe (see ST 69 NE 12) is the present park. The Worthy or Castle Park was enclosed in the reign of Henry IV and disparked in Elizabeth's time. New Park was enclosed 1327-8. Two parks called Oakley and Shepnesse were disparked in the reign of Edward VI, and the same fate probable overtook most of the Berkeley parks, though Cromhall was again imparked in the reign of Charles II. (4)

A dry moat between ST 68439899 and ST 68549900, with an average depth of 4 metres. Revised at 1:2500.

For historical references see the attached guide book. (5)

Berkeley Castle: concise architectural description. (6)

Berkeley Castle, built soon after 1067, augmented mid 12th c and largely remodelled mid 14th c. RG listed grade II* (7)

The castle was briefly in royal hands from 1492-1553 when the only major alterations to the castle was the creation of a kitchen immediately east of the keep in the 9th year of Henry VII. (8)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1955
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Source Number : 2
Source : Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society
Source details :
Page(s) : 133-79
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 48, 1926
Source Number : 3
Source : Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society
Source details :
Page(s) : 308-39
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 60, 1938
Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Shirley EP. 1867. English Deer Parks, 193-4
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Source Number : 4a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Lives of the Berkeleys (Fosbroke)
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Source Number : 4b
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : History of Glos (S Rudder)
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Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 MJF 05-FEB-70
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Source Number : 6
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Clark G T. 1884. Medieval Military Architecture in England. Vol 1, 228-239
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Source Number : 7
Source : Register of parks and gardens of special historic interest in England
Source details : Gloucestershire
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Vol(s) : Part 16
Source Number : 8
Source : The history of the King's Works, volume 3 : 1485-1660 (part 1)
Source details :
Page(s) : 232-3
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Late C11 construction
Monument End Date : 1099
Monument Start Date : 1067
Monument Type : Castle, Motte And Bailey
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Mid C12 rebuilding
Monument End Date : 1166
Monument Start Date : 1133
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : C13 rebuilding
Monument End Date : 1299
Monument Start Date : 1200
Monument Type : Castle, Shell Keep, Curtain Wall
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Mid C14 rebuilding
Monument End Date : 1366
Monument Start Date : 1333
Monument Type : Castle, Gatehouse
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : 1492
Monument End Date : 1492
Monument Start Date : 1492
Monument Type : Kitchen
Evidence : Ruined Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Slighted 1645
Monument End Date : 1645
Monument Start Date : 1645
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Ruined Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 132188
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 108605
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : ST 69 NE 6
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 848830
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1570061
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, BERKELEY CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1938-01-01
End Date : 1938-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON ST 69 NE 6
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1970-02-05
End Date : 1970-02-05
Associated Activities : Primary, BERKELEY CASTLE (GARDENS)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BERKELEY CASTLE
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT BERKELEY CASTLE
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 2006-01-01
End Date : 2006-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT BERKELEY CASTLE
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 2006-01-01
End Date : 2006-12-31