HeritageGateway - Home
Site Map
Text size: A A A
You are here: Home > > > > Historic England research records Result
Historic England research recordsPrintable version | About Historic England research records

Historic England Research Records

Aydon Castle

Hob Uid: 20476
Location :
Northumberland
Corbridge
Grid Ref : NZ0013066310
Summary : A medieval fortified manor house whose elements include a variety of upstanding domestic, ancillary and defensive buildings arranged within three courtyards surrounded by a curtain wall. Also included, due to the manor's conversion to a farmhouse in the 17th century, is an orchard and a range of 18th century farm buildings along the west side of the middle courtyard. Medieval documents indicate that a timber hall existed on the site prior to about 1300. It was located in roughly the same area as the adjacent late 13th century hall and its location has been partially confirmed by excavation. The later house was not originally intended to be fortified. Its construction began in the last quarter of the 13th century, prior to the 14th century Border wars. By 1305, when most of the buildings were complete, Edward I granted its owner licence to crenellate. The earliest stone buildings are the hall, chamber block and the garderobe; dateable to between 1280 and 1300. Between 1300 and 1305, battlemented walls were built to the north, enclosing the buildings within an inner courtyard. Following the king's licence, parapets were added to the domestic buildings and the inner courtyard wall. The construction of the outer courtyard was begun and completed by 1315. The D-shaped tower probably dates to the mid-14th century. Because the curtain wall appears never to have been a strong defensive line and because there was no gatehouse at the castle entrance, it was rapidly surrendered to the Scots in 1315. In the 16th or 17th century, the eastern part of the outer courtyard was divided off to create an orchard. Dating of timbers from the kitchen and latrine block indicate building activity in the 1540s when the property changed hands from the Reymes family to the Carnably family. In the 18th century the manor became a farmhouse on the Matfen estate which saw the construction of farmbuildings in the middle courtyard. The site is in the care of English Heritage.
More information : [NZ 00136631] AYDON CASTLE [G.T] (Remains of)
[NZ 00146634] TOWER [G.T.]. (1)

Aydon Castle is an almost perfect example of a fortified manor house
built at the close of the 13th century. The original house was
probably built by Robert de Raymes I. Licence to crenellate was
granted on 5th April 1305.

The Raynes do not appear to have resided at Aydon after the 14th
century and by 1450 it was in ruins. Subsequently restored by
various owners,and today (1914) is in the possession of Sir Hugh
Balckett.
Across the front of the NW curtain wall of the outer bailey ran a dry
moat (see plans).
Scheduled Ancient Monument. (2-4)

Aydon Castle, in good condition.
Traces of a moat which at one time cut off the promontory are visible
only on the west side of the building. (5)

Published earthworks (25") revised otherwise condition unchanged. (6)

Aydon Castle Grade I. Licence to crenellate 1305, but part of
building may be late 13th century. Now unhabitated, partly used as
farm buildings. (7)

Aydon Castle. Main buildings and courtyard walls. Grade I.
An exceptionally well-preserved building unique in the County. Its
interpretation has aroused some controversy, as to whether the house
was planned as two dwellings, since functions on ground and 1st
floors seem to be duplicated.

Aydon Castle. Outer bailey walls and attached farmbuildings. Grade I.
(8)

NZ 0014 6631. Aydon Castle medieval hall, fortified manor house and
eighteenth century farm buildings. Scheduled RSM No 23226.
The monument known as Aydon Castle, or sometimes Aydon Hall, is a
medieval fortified manor house whose elements include a variety of
upstanding domestic, ancillary and defensive buildings arranged
within three courtyards surrounded by a curtain wall. Also included
in the scheduling, due to the manor's conversion to a farmhouse in
the 17th century, is an orchard and a range of 18th century farm
buildings along the W side of the courtyard. The medieval defensive
ditch outside the NW curtain wall is also included, together with
the buried remains of the timber-framed hall which preceeded the
construction of the fortified house. Full architectural and
historical account. (9)

The roof-space of the kitchen has been inspected in detail. Dendrochronologicaly dated to a felling date of 1543/4. (10)

The results of tree-ring (dendrochronological) analysis of timbers from the latrine block at the castle were published in 2002. 13 of the sampled timbers could be dated. Whilst one group could only be dated to a broader period of 1536-61, others from the roof could be given a felling date of 1541, whilst those from the attic floor appear to have been felled AD 1545. The build would appear to be of a piece howver without any obvious later insertions. The dating of the timbers would fit with known historical events: Sir Reynold Carnaby took over the property from the Reymes family in 1541 and when he died in 1543 his younger brother Cuthbert carried on with repairs and improvements. There may have been disruptions to these preperations, such as felling building timber, when the Carnaby estates were attacked, which would explain the difference in felling dates. (11)


Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1920-46
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : A history of Northumberland, volume ten : the parish of Corbridge
Source details :
Page(s) : 343-66
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : vol.10
Source Number : 11
Source : Tree-ring analysis of timbers from the latrine block, Aydon Castle, Corbridge, Northumberland; Centre for Archaeology Reports 36/2002
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : Archaeologia Aeliana : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details : CJ Bates
Page(s) : 8, 10, 15
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 8, 1891
Source Number : 4
Source : Archaeologia Aeliana : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details : Hadcock RN. Map of Medieval Northumberland and Durham
Page(s) : 165
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 16, 1939
Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 EG 11-MAY-56
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F2 RL 18-MAR-66
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Hexham RD, AUG-1968
Page(s) : 27
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Tynedale, 24-MAY-1988
Page(s) : 55-6
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1926
Source Number : 9
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 19-Oct-93
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : Archaeologia Aeliana : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details :
Page(s) : 73-86
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 25, 1997

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Medieval (prior to c1300)
Monument End Date : 1310
Monument Start Date : 1066
Monument Type : Manor House, Timber Framed House
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built 1280-1300
Monument End Date : 1300
Monument Start Date : 1280
Monument Type : Manor House
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : 1300-1305
Monument End Date : 1305
Monument Start Date : 1300
Monument Type : Wall, Courtyard
Evidence : Structure
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Licence to crenellate in 1305
Monument End Date : 1305
Monument Start Date : 1305
Monument Type : Fortified Manor House, Wall
Evidence : Extant Building, Structure
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : 1315
Monument End Date : 1315
Monument Start Date : 1315
Monument Type : Courtyard, Wall
Evidence : Structure
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Mid C14
Monument End Date : 1366
Monument Start Date : 1333
Monument Type : Fortified Manor House, Tower
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : C18
Monument End Date : 1799
Monument Start Date : 1700
Monument Type : Farmhouse, Farm Building
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Tudor
Display Date : Tudor
Monument End Date : 1543
Monument Start Date : 1541
Monument Type : Garderobe
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Tudor
Display Date : 1544-1550
Monument End Date : 1550
Monument Start Date : 1544
Monument Type : Kitchen
Evidence : Extant Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1011645
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : ND 101
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 23226
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : EH Property Number
External Cross Reference Number : 115
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 239858
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1303707
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NZ 06 NW 11
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 06 NW 11
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1956-03-18
End Date : 1956-03-18
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 06 NW 11
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1956-05-11
End Date : 1956-05-11
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 06 NW 11
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1966-03-18
End Date : 1966-03-18
Associated Activities : Primary, AYDON CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1975-01-01
End Date : 1975-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, KITCHEN RANGE, AYDON CASTLE
Activity type : DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, AYDON CASTLE, OUTER CURTAIN WALL
Activity type : MANAGEMENT SURVEY
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LATRINE BLOCK, AYDON CASTLE
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31