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Chiselbury Camp

Hob Uid: 213964
Location :
Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Broad Chalke, Fovant
Grid Ref : SU0193028050
Summary : The earthwork remains of a large Iron Age univallate hillfort, much mutilated by ploughing. Roman coins have been found within it and Iron Age finds uncovered nearby. A medieval trackway runs along the ridge top. Scheduled.
More information : (SU 0180 2812) Chiselbury Camp (NR). (1)

An Iron Age univallate hill-fort (see plan (3) and air photographs
(4)) enclosing 8 1/2 acres, with an entrance at the south east, where
there is a slight semi-circular outwork. The interior is arable.
Bivallate ditches run from the north side to the edge of the
escarpment and from the south-east outwork towards the bottom of the
combe (3) and possibly beyond in a southerly direction (5).

Dr R C C Clay (3) has found Iron Age pottery just outside the camp
and a lead spindle-whorl or net-sinker possibly Romano-British, both
surface finds. The Rev G H Engleheart (3) has a coin of Constantine
1, found within the camp. (2-5)

Chiselbury is a roughly circular univallate IA settlement of some 4
hectares in area situated at one of the narrowest points of an E-W
ridge. It has an entrance in the SE and the rampart and ditch, which
are well preserved apart from some minor mutilations, are
respectively up to 3.6m high and 1.6m deep. The small roughly
rectangular outwork is some 60.0 m long and 40.0 m deep, lies against
the main ditch and encloses the entrance. It is very much ploughed
down, existing only as slight scarps, but seems originally to have
consisted of bank and outer ditch, possibly with an entrance almost
opposite that to the settlement where the present scarps are lowest.
It is probably contemporary with the main work though its present
poor condition makes positive identification difficult.

The "bivallate ditches", each consist of two low banks with a medial
ditch and extend from the settlement to the edge of the escarpment in
the N, (about 75.0 m) and from the side of the outwork to the coombe
in the S, (about 145.0 m). They are almost certainly contemporary
with the settlement, probably being constructed to cut the ridge on
which it lies. (There are no visible indications that the ditches
were ever joined (and thus pre-settlement) nor, in view of their
orientation, does this seem a likely occurance). (7)

Two bivallate dykes extend from the fort. The N one for 80 yards from
the N ditch and over the Hill. The S one from the earthwork in front
of the SE entrance and over the scarp where it fades, blocked by fill
from above, but reappears to almost the foot of the scarp, a total of
about 150 yards. Above the scarp it is almost ploughed out and cut by
tracks.

Bivallate dykes are considered to have been primarily land boundary
works within an IA 'A' context, possibly circa 500 BC. (8)

SU 018 281. Chiselbury. Listed in gazetteer as a univallate hillfort
covering 3.4ha. (9)

Additional reference [not consulted]. (10)

Chiselbury Camp and the accompanying linear earthworks were surveyed by staff from RCHME Salisbury as part of the South Wiltshire earthworks project. The following is a summary of the more detailed archive report:

Chiselbury Camp is a univallate enclosure occupying a prominent position at 200m OD on a N projecting spur of the Ebble-Nadder ridge. The defences consist of a single rampart and external ditch creating an irregular ovoid c 4ha in extent. Its ridge top position is further enhanced by steep slopes falling to the N and S. Access to the site is gained from the W along the main axis of the ridge.

The enclosure boundary has been constructed in a series of straight or slightly curved sections. At one point there is a clear misalignment of two sections of rampart. Survey failed to locate any internal quarry hollowing and it remains unlikely that all the material for rampart construction came from the ditch.

There are 8 interruptions in the enclosure boundary, all narrow gaps of c2 - 10m in the circuit of the bank. Only 3 have associated causeways in the ditch.

Two linear earthworks project from Chiselbury. The N linear is aligned roughly N-S and can be traced for c100m towards the edge of the escarpment. Much of its length N of the enclosure has been obliterated by ploughing. The S linear is also aligned N-S and has again been damaged by ploughing outside the enclosure. It has a total overall length of c155m and, unusually for a cross-ridge dyke, its course continues over the edge of the escarpment into a combe bottom. (11)

SU 01802811. The southern cross dyke continues as a buried feature beneath a trackway which runs along the ridge top. An Anglo Saxon charter refers to 'the ridgeway', suggesting the trackway was in use by at least the early medieval period. During the medieval and post medieval periods, it was the main route from Walton to Shaftesbury and had become a turnpike road by the 18th century. A map of 1773 shows a toll house immediately south of the road. This structure is visible today as a series of earthworks representing a building platform with a small enclosure to its east. Scheduled. (12)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1961
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Source Number : 2
Source : A history of Wiltshire: volume 1, part 1
Source details : VCH Wilts 1 pt 1 1957 266
Page(s) : 266
Figs. :
Plates :
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Source Number : 11
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : RCHME Field Investigation 26-SEP-1991 (DS McOmish)
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Source Number : 12
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : EH Scheduling amendment, 11-FEB-2002
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Source : Chiselbury Camp, depressions and northern linear earthwork/survey
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Source : Chiselbury Hillfort and Linear Ditch/survey
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Source : Chiselbury Camp/contour survey
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Source : SU 02 NW 2 (Chiselbury Camp) (1974)
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Source : Chiselbury Camp II, linear earthwork/survey
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Source : Chiselbury Camp hillfort/survey
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Source : Chiselbury Camp hillfort/report
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Source Number : 3
Source : Wessex from the air
Source details : Wessex from the Air 1928 74-7 plan photo (OGS Crawford and A Keiller)
Page(s) : 74-77
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Source Number : 4
Source : Aerial photograph
Source details : APs (J K St Joseph cc 038 undated NMR SU 0128/6 SU 0128/2/365 and SU 0128/4/374 18.10.67)
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Source Number : 5
Source : Aerial photograph
Source details : APs (RAF/540/854 4144-6 29.8.52)
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Source Number : 6
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 MHB 06-SEP-74
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Source Number : 7
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F2 ANK 04-APR-75
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Source Number : 8
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : WAM 59 1964 46-57 (P Fowler)
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Source Number : 9
Source : British Hillforts: an index
Source details : BAR 62 British Hill-Forts: An Index 1979 206 (AHA Hogg)
Page(s) : 206
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Vol(s) : 62
Source Number : 10
Source : The ancient earthworks of Cranborne Chase described, and delineated in plans founded on the 25 inch to 1 mile Ordnance Survey
Source details : Sumner, H, 1913. Ancient Earthworks in Cranborne Chase (25)
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Iron Age
Display Date : Iron Age
Monument End Date :
Monument Start Date :
Monument Type : Univallate Hillfort, Cross Dyke
Evidence : Earthwork, Find
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Find
Monument Period Name : Early Medieval
Display Date : Saxon
Monument End Date : 1066
Monument Start Date : 450
Monument Type : Trackway
Evidence : Earthwork, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Medieval
Monument End Date : 1540
Monument Start Date : 1066
Monument Type : Trackway
Evidence : Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : By 1773
Monument End Date : 1773
Monument Start Date :
Monument Type : Toll Road, Toll House
Evidence : Documentary Evidence, Earthwork

Components and Objects:
Period : Iron Age
Component Monument Type : Univallate Hillfort, Cross Dyke
Object Type : SPINDLE WHORL, SWORD, SCABBARD
Object Material : Pottery, Lead
Period : Roman
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type : COIN
Object Material :

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Wiltshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 202
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 33966
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SU 02 NW 2
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : RCHME: SOUTH WILTSHIRE
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date :
End Date :
Associated Activities : CHISELBURY CAMP
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1800-01-01
End Date : 1810-12-31
Associated Activities : CHISELBURY CAMP
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1923-01-01
End Date : 1923-12-31
Associated Activities : FIELD OBSERVATION ON SU 02 NW 2
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1974-09-06
End Date : 1974-09-06
Associated Activities : FIELD OBSERVATION ON SU 02 NW 2
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1975-04-04
End Date : 1975-04-04