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Richmond Castle

Hob Uid: 21618
Location :
North Yorkshire
Richmondshire
Richmond
Grid Ref : NZ1713000720
Summary : The standing remains of Richmond Castle. The earliest form of the castle was that of a massive curtain wall around two sides of a triangular great court. The masonry of this wall dates to the last thirty years of the 11th century, though the parapets and wall walk on the east side are early 14th century. Three projecting towers defended the 11th century curtain on the east side while another smaller tower stood at the south west angle. The curtain on the west side still stands to a considerable height and contains an 11th century sallyport. It also contains a semicircular arch indicating the site of the greater chapel. At the north angle of the curtain, beneath the later keep, is the 11th century inner gatehouse. The outer gatehouse is no longer standing. In the south east angle of the great court is the 11th century Scolland's Hall. Originally a two-storey building, the first floor was reached by an external stair and consisted of a great hall. In the 14th century, the hall was modified by the insertion of a new doorway and window. Eleventh century masonry survives in the three towers projecting from the east curtain. The latrine pits and lower parts of the Gold Hole Tower (the garderobe tower) are of that date, as are the lower floors of the Robin Hood Tower. Dominating the castle is the square keep, 30.6 metres high and built in the second half of the 12th century over the 11th century inner gatehouse. Also 12th century is wall around the outer court, or cockpit, which is thought initially to have been enclosed by a timber palisade. The north section of the wall, and part of the east, is still extant, and the buried foundations of two towers survive to the south and east. North of Scolland's Hall are the ruins of a group of two-storey buildings built in the 14th century and housing a chapel and chamber. The castle was used as a military prison in both World Wars: there is graffiti from conscientious objectors held here in the First World War.
More information : [NZ 171130072] CASTLE [LB] (Remains of)
TOWER [LB]
COCK PIT [LB] (1)

A well preserved monument in the care of the Ministry of Works (see guide) and open to the public. 1/1250 survey to be amended by the Field Surveyor. (2)

Very fine C11 keep with contemporary curtain wall and later mediaeval additions. NMR. AM. (3)

Richmond Castle -SCHEDULED Richmond NZ172007. (4)

Richmond Castle, enclosure castle, built c1070-1100 AD. Its original form was triangular with a massive stone wall on two sides, the third side was protected by the drop to the River Swale and possibly a timber palisade. The eastern wall was covered by three projecting towers. In the great court is the 11th century Scolland's Hall, named after the steward of the first earl. It was originally a two storey building, the ground floor given over to cellarage. The upper was the great hall and in the south east corner the solar. The square keep was built in the second half of the twelfth century over the 11th century inner gatehouse. The Robin Hood tower contained the chapel of St Nicholas.Scheduled. (5)

Additional references.(6-8)

Listed by Cathcart King. (9)

Additional references. (10,11)

History of the castle as a royal possession between 1171-1294. (12)

Conservation Plan. (13)

The nineteenth century detention block, located just inside the Castle entrance, held conscientious objectors during World War I The prisoners recorded thier personal and political beliefs in the form of graffiti. Later additions date from the Second World War when the cells were used as a punishment block for disorderly behaviour by soliders. There are many proficient drawings and sketches alongside names and scrawls in pencil. (14)

Once element of the graffiti left by consciencious objectors includes an image of Christ prostrated by carrying the weight of his cross, accompanied by lines of Christian texts, dated 22nd May 1916. Above the image is an inscription in Latin meaning "Jesus is the saviour of mankind" together with the IHS monogram. Such survivals of graffiti are rare. (15)

Richmond Castle served as a base for the Non-Combatant Corps from 1916. Consciencious objectors (men who for genuine religious or moral reasons would not fight in the new conscript army being raised) were often sent to join this unit, which had been established so that they could be chanelled into supporting the war effort without fighting. However some of these men were "absolutist" objectors who were oppossed to any support for the war. Amongst these were the "Richmond Sixteen", who were imprisoned in the cell block at Richmond Castle. Their brutal treatment caused a national debate dispite widespread hatred of objectors. In May 1916 they were taken from Richmond Castle to an army camp in northern France. They were then technically on "active service" and could be shot for disobeying orders. Only one of the Richmond 16 gave into this pressure and joined the Con-Combatents Corps. A death sentence was passed in June of 1916 on Lord Kitchener's orders- however Kitchener himslef died when his ship struck a mine- before the sentence could be carried out. It was commuted to 10 years hard labour by the prime Minister, Asquith. After their release all the prisoners sufferred psychological effects, and some faced continuing hostility, but the fact that they had stayed true to their principles had to some degree changed public opinion on conciencious objectors and pacifists. (16)

A Technical report dating from 1985 on remedial conservation details work carried out to save the graffiti in the cell block. (17)

Richmond castle was probably established in the 1070s by Alan Rufus to defend his estates against dispossed Anglo-Saxon nobles. It later grew as the centre of a network of estates known as the "Honour of Richmond", which were spread over 8 counties. (18)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1957
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Source Number : 2
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : D Smith/16-APR-1967/OS Archaeology Division Field Investigation
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Source Number : 11
Source : Ordnance Survey guide to castles in Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 197
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Source Number : 12
Source : The history of the King's Works, volume 2 : the Middle Ages
Source details :
Page(s) : 806
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Source Number : 13
Source : Richmond Castle Conservation Plan
Source details :
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Vol(s) : 01-Feb
Source Number : 14
Source : Our painted past : wall paintings of English Heritage
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Source Number : 15
Source : Military Wall Art: Guidelines on its significance, conservation and management
Source details :
Page(s) : 3
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Source Number : 16
Source : World Wide Web page
Source details : English Heritage 2004. 'English-Heritage website: publications' <> [Accessed 10-NOV-2010]
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Source Number : 17
Source : Remedial work to secure graffiti at Richmond Castle Cell Block: English Heritage Research and Technical Advisory Service Report No. 4
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Source Number : 18
Source : Heritage unlocked: Guide to free sites in Yorkshire and the north east
Source details :
Page(s) : 89
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Source Number : 3
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Borough of Richmond, 15-OCT-1973
Page(s) : 1
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Source Number : 4
Source : List of ancient monuments in England: Volume 1, Northern England; Volume 2, Southern England; Volume 3, East Anglia and the Midlands
Source details :
Page(s) : 64
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Vol(s) : 1
Source Number : 5
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 18-Mar-92
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Source Number : 6
Source : Richmond Castle, Yorkshire
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Source Number : 7
Source : Richmond Castle, Yorkshire
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Source Number : 8
Source : Richmond Castle
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Source Number : 9
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the Islands. Volume II : Norfolk-Yorkshire and the islands
Source details :
Page(s) : 524
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Vol(s) : 2
Source Number : 10
Source : English Heritage book of castles
Source details :
Page(s) : 27,33,34,48,49,127
Figs. :
Plates : 2,3,10
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built 1070-1100
Monument End Date : 1100
Monument Start Date : 1070
Monument Type : Castle, Curtain Wall, Great Hall, Gatehouse, Angle Tower, Interval Tower
Evidence : Ruined Building, Structure, Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Second half C12
Monument End Date : 1199
Monument Start Date : 1150
Monument Type : Keep
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : C14
Monument End Date : 1399
Monument Start Date : 1300
Monument Type : Great Hall, Chapel
Evidence : Ruined Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Early C14
Monument End Date : 1332
Monument Start Date : 1300
Monument Type : Curtain Wall, Cockpit
Evidence : Structure, Earthwork
Monument Period Name : First World War
Display Date : Grafitti dates from 1916
Monument End Date : 1918
Monument Start Date : 1916
Monument Type : Graffiti, Military Prison
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Second World War
Display Date : Second World War
Monument End Date : 1945
Monument Start Date : 1939
Monument Type : Military Prison
Evidence : Extant Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : NY 21
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 13277
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 322846
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : EH Property Number
External Cross Reference Number : 380
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 110930
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NZ 10 SE 2
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1361643
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, RICHMOND CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date :
End Date :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 10 SE 2
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1967-04-16
End Date : 1967-04-16
Associated Activities : Primary, RICHMOND CASTLE, TOWER STREET
Activity type : THEMATIC SURVEY
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, RICHMOND CASTLE (THE BARBICAN)
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, RICHMOND CASTLE KEEP
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE BARBICAN, RICHMOND CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE COCKPIT, RICHMOND CASTLE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE COCKPIT, RICHMOND CASTLE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, RICHMOND MARKET PLACE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, COLLEGE SQUARE, REAR OF 16 MARKET PLACE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31