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Historic England Research Records

Monument Number 216369

Hob Uid: 216369
Location :
Wiltshire
Avebury
Grid Ref : SU0860070520
Summary : A Neolithic long barrow, Avebury 47, on the southern slope of Windmill Hill. It was excavated in 1959 when Neolithic and Beaker pottery, antler, bone and flint artefacts and sarsen rubbers were found. Antler samples were radiocarbon dated to 3240 +/- 150 bc. The mound survives as an earthwork circa 58 metres long and up to 34 metres wide, with the side ditches visible as cropmarks. To the north of the long barrow, a poorly defined cropmark of an elongated mound, suggestive of a long barrow, has been recorded, but must be treated with caution due to the poor quality of the cropmark.
More information : (SU 08607052) Long Barrow (NR) (Site of) (1)

Avebury 47, a long barrow (2) (see plan) orientated SE/NW,
heavily damaged, with the side-ditches slightly splayed at the
NW. Excavated by Ashbee and Smith (3) in 1959. Large quantities of antler, bone, flint artifacts, sarsen rubbers, pottery and pieces of imported rock were recovered from six sections dug across the barrow's wide shallow ditches. Beaker and other late Neolithic sherds came from the upper silt level of the ditches.
Antler samples (4) gave a radiocarbon dating of 3240 +/-150 bc.
Crawford's air photograph (5) suggests another long barrow a few yards away (2), visible as an ovoid shaped cropmark (6) orientated NW/SE. (2-6)

SU 08607049. A mutilated mound, 58.0m long, up to 34.0m wide and 0.6m high, almost certainly the remains of the excavated long barrow. It is orientated NW/SE and lies on a southerly hillslope; there are no traces of the side ditches.
Surveyed at 1:2500.

There are no surface indications of a second long barrow (2).

Neither barrow is visible on OS AP 73/071 203. (7)

The final excavation report was published in 1979 (8). The barrow is situated on the southern slope of Windmill Hill c.750m south of the Neolithic enclosure (SU 07 SE 22). An irregular line of intersecting pits were found between the southern ditch and the mound remnant. Blocks of chalk and small chalk rubble appear to have been used in mound construction. The only human bone found was a single femur head in the plough soil over one of the ditches. Finds from the ditches included sherds of Peterborough wares and Beakers, plus flint implements and knapping debris, the pottery occurring in secondary contexts. Earlier Neolithic sherds occurred in plough soil. Roman and medieval potsherds were also found. (8)

Additional references. (9-11)

Neither Goddard nor Smith appear to mention anything resembling a second long barrow (although neither described Avebury 47 as a long barrow), and Grinsell offers no supporting evidence for the statement that a second barrow existed. (12-13)

The side ditches of the long barrow, Avebury 47, were visible as cropmarks (14-15). To the north of the long barrow is a poorly defined cropmark indicative of a mound. This is in the same postion as the mark in the Crawford photograph (5a). However, the quality of the cropmarks is such that the interpretation as a long barrow is difficult to confirm.

The long barrow mound is visible as a heavily truncated mound on lidar and was mapped as part of the Avebury WHS Lidar and NMP Review.
(16)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1925
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : A history of Wiltshire: volume 1, part 1
Source details : Grinsell, LV. Archaeological Gazetteer
Page(s) : 138
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : The Wiltshire archaeological and natural history magazine
Source details : Barker, CT
Page(s) : 22
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 79, 1985
Source Number : 11
Source : Non-megalithic long barrows and allied structures in the British Neolithic
Source details :
Page(s) : 32
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : no.52
Source Number : 12
Source : Guide to the British and Roman antiquities of the north Wiltshire downs in a hundred square miles round Abury; being a key to the large map of the above
Source details :
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Source Number : 13
Source : The Wiltshire archaeological and natural history magazine
Source details : Goddard, EH. A List of Prehistoric, Roman and Pagan Saxon Antiquities in the County of Wiltshire..
Page(s) : 180
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 38, 1913-14
Source Number : 14
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : WCC 3981 042-043 02-AUG-1981
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Source Number : 15
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : CUCAP (RC8-DE 78) 05-SEP-1979
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Source Number : 16
Source : Light detection and ranging (lidar) airborne survey
Source details : LIDAR SU0870 ENVIRONMENT AGENCY 03-MAY-2006
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Source : RCHME: Horslip Long Barrow, Northamptonshire
Source details :
Page(s) :
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Source Number :
Source : SU 07 SE 6 (1973)
Source details :
Page(s) :
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : Antiquity
Source details : Ashbee, P and I Smith.
Page(s) : 297-9
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 34, 1960
Source Number : 4
Source : Antiquity
Source details : Ashbee, P and I Smith.
Page(s) : 299
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 40, 1966
Source Number : 5
Source : Annotated Record Map
Source details : Rec 6" (O G S Crawford 14.12.21)
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 5a
Source : Oblique aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR SU 0870/1/6511 18-JUN-1934
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Source Number : 6
Source : Annotated Record Map
Source details : Rec 6" (B A Colmer 21.1.53)
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Source Number : 7
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 MJF 10-OCT-73
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 8
Source : Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society
Source details : Ashbee, P, IF Smith, JG Evans
Page(s) : 207-227
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 45, 1979
Source Number : 9
Source : The earthen long barrow in Britain : an introduction to the study of the funerary practice and culture of the Neolithic people of the third millennium
Source details :
Page(s) : 42-3
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Mesolithic
Display Date : Mesolithic
Monument End Date : -4000
Monument Start Date : -10000
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Find
Monument Period Name : Neolithic
Display Date : Neolithic
Monument End Date : -2200
Monument Start Date : -4000
Monument Type : Human Remains, Long Barrow
Evidence : Earthwork, Cropmark, Sub Surface Deposit, Conjectural Evidence
Monument Period Name : Early Bronze Age
Display Date : Early Bronze Age
Monument End Date : -1600
Monument Start Date : -2600
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Find
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Medieval
Monument End Date : 1540
Monument Start Date : 1066
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Find

Components and Objects:
Period : Mesolithic
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type : LITHIC IMPLEMENT
Object Material :
Period : Neolithic
Component Monument Type : Human Remains, Long Barrow
Object Type : LITHIC IMPLEMENT, ANIMAL REMAINS, VESSEL
Object Material : Pottery
Period : Early Bronze Age
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type : VESSEL
Object Material : Pottery
Period : Roman
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type : VESSEL
Object Material : Pottery
Period : Medieval
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type : VESSEL
Object Material : Pottery

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 21716
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Wiltshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 104
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SU 07 SE 6
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 216413
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SU 07 SE 5
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date :
End Date :
Associated Activities : Primary, S OF WINDMILL HILL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1959-01-01
End Date : 1959-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SU 07 SE 5
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1973-10-10
End Date : 1973-10-10
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: AVEBURY WORLD HERITAGE SITE PROJECT
Activity type : FIELD SURVEY
Start Date : 1997-08-01
End Date : 1998-12-01
Associated Activities : Primary, HORSLIP LONG BARROW, WINDMILL HILL
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, STONEHENGE & AVEBURY WHS
Activity type : SYSTEMATIC FIELDWALKING SURVEY
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: AVEBURY WHS LIDAR AND NMP REVIEW PROJECT
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2011-05-01