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Historic England Research Records

Barforth

Hob Uid: 21734
Location :
County Durham
Barforth
Grid Ref : NZ1646016200
Summary : Earthwork and building remains of a deserted Medieval village or probable manorial complex.
More information : (Centred NZ 164162) Old Richmond (Site of) (NAT). (1)

Barforth on Tees: A deserted Medieval village consisting of a ruined church (NZ 11 NE 37), earthworks of streets and crofts, and a dovecote (NZ 11 NE 38), situated on a scarp overlooking the River Tees. Barforth Hall (NZ 11 NE 34) is farther to the north (164 167). This may be the "Brieforde" where depopulation was reported in 1517. Mentioned in Domesday Book and between 1301 and 1334. Barford has long been called Old Richmond, erroneously, as the original seat of the earls of Bretagne and Richmond was at Gilling to the south (2-3)

On the mound called the "Chapel Garth" has probably stood a castle or watch tower to defend the passage of a paved road across the Tees at Boat House. The village of Barford was situated beyond the stream to the west where foundations, called Old Garths, are still visible. The origin of the name "Old Richmond" is probably due to "de Roaldo de Richmond" being named as holding Berford or Berforth in Kirkby's Inquisition in 1287. (4)

Many undressed stones were encountered when ploughing the eastern part of the fields to the west of St Lawrence's Chapel (NZ 11 NE 37) (a).

(Centred NZ 16441621). The earthworks are typical of a deserted village and consist of banked enclosures with smaller enclosures and platforms representing the buried foundations of buildings. The banks vary in height from 0.3 m to 1 m. The whole area is under pasture. The main earthworks are situated to the north of St Lawrence's Chapel with only slight trace at the east end of the area.

The earthworks are incorrectly shown on OS 6" and the site will
require assistance when re-survey takes place. (5)

The remains in the area published as "Old Richmond" cannot be described as typical of a deserted Medieval village; rather, they
would appear to be those of a manorial complex, including a possible fishpond at NZ 16461622, as well as the dovecote (NZ 11 NE 38) and St Lawrence's Chapel (NZ 11 NE 37). Resurveyed at 1:2500.

Any village which may have existed probably occurred to the west of the small stream as suggested by McLauchlan, although no trace now remains. (6)

Visible on AP. (7)

Existing survey revised by RCHME during a survey of scheduled
monuments in County Durham.

Extending north from the chapel, (NZ 11 NE 37), are the remains of a number of rectangular buildings, mostly within a perimeter earthwork, and a possible pond to the east. At NZ 1641 1629 is a three-celled building on the steep north-facing slope outside the boundary earth-work. No entrances or internal features are visible but some wall faces are showing. The walls stand up to 0.3 m high generally but the platform to the north is 1.5 m high and stony. A building at NZ 1638 1625 is about 28 m long but has no apparent internal divisions. A break on the south side might be an entrance but looks more like disturbance. A stony mound on the north side may be debris from the adjacent quarry scoop. The walls of this building are up to 0.4 m high. At NZ 1637 1622 are the slight remains of a building possibly straddling the perimeter earthwork. The west wall of this building stands up to 0.7 m high but the rest is slight and lost in rank vegetation. At NZ 1642 1624 is a building about 24 m long, again with no apparent sub-divisions and no sign of an entrance. The walls of this building stand about 0.3 m high. The boundary earthwork is an outward-facing scarp up to 1.5 m high. At NZ 1646 1623 is the possible pond. It is 0.4 m deep to the north and over 2 m deep to the south and its east end is disturbed. Aerial photographs (8a) show further earthworks in the centre of the site but at the time of the
field visit most of this area was obscured by thick vegetation. (8)



Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" map 1954
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Source Number : 2
Source : The Yorkshire archaeological journal
Source details : M W Beresford
Page(s) : 294
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 38, 1955
Source Number :
Source : St Lawrence's Chapel, Barforth/pencil survey
Source details :
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Source : St Lawrence's Chapel, Barforth/ink survey
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Source Number : 3
Source : Archaeologia : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details : J Cade
Page(s) : 282
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 9, 1789
Source Number : 4
Source : The Archaeological Journal
Source details : H McLauchlan
Page(s) : 225,335
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 6, 1849
Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 EGGeary/28-MAY-1954/OS Archaeology Division Field Investigator
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Source Number : 5a
Source : Oral information, correspondence (not archived) or staff comments
Source details : Mr J Graham (Owner) Barforth Hall
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Source Number : 6
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F2 DSmith/14-MAR-1973/OS Archaeology Division Field Investigator
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Source Number : 7
Source : Aerial photograph
Source details : OGSC 18 8 31
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Source Number : 8
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : Mark Bowden/03-SEP-1991/RCHME: Durham SAMs Project
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Source Number : 8a
Source : Aerial photograph
Source details : NLAP NZ 1616/1-11
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Recorded 1086
Monument End Date : 1086
Monument Start Date : 1086
Monument Type : Deserted Settlement, Manor House
Evidence : Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Extant 1301-1334
Monument End Date : 1334
Monument Start Date : 1301
Monument Type : Deserted Settlement, Manor House, Fishpond
Evidence : Earthwork, Ruined Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Depopulated 1517
Monument End Date : 1517
Monument Start Date : 1517
Monument Type : Deserted Settlement, Manor House, Fishpond
Evidence : Earthwork, Ruined Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NZ 11 NE 14
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 21807
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 21810
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 11 NE 14
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1954-05-28
End Date : 1954-05-28
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 11 NE 14
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1973-03-14
End Date : 1973-03-14
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: DURHAM SAMS PROJECT
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1991-06-01
End Date : 1991-12-01