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Historic England Research Records

Raby Castle

Hob Uid: 22054
Location :
County Durham
Raby with Keverstone
Grid Ref : NZ1290021700
Summary : Early-mid 14th century castle possibly incorporating earlier buildings. A licence to crenellate was granted in 1379. The castle was partly demolished circa 1620, and has 18th century alterations and additions. Additions and alterations were also carried out circa 1814, 1844-8 and 1864. It is irregular in plan, with nine perimeter towers and a keep, constructed of millstone grit and limestone with ashlar dressings and Lakeland slate roofs.
More information : [NZ 129217] Raby Castle [NR]. (1)

See attached pamphlet. (2)

Castle and Gate House, Grade I. (3)

Published earthworks (25") revised. (4)

There is a bath house, and a fig house at Raby Castle. (5)

Additional reference. (6)

Listed by Cathcart King. Irregular castle of roughly quadrangular Northern form; owing to rebuilding the original plan is not easy to reconstruct. It seems to have formed an irregular quadrangle with square towers asymmetrically arranged, and a detached pentagonal keep in its own moat. Later Mediaeval additions involved lengthening a gate and an angle-tower and building on an irregular projection, with a large rectangular tower. The whole now forms something of a pentagon. The whole is surrounded by an outer concentric wall with shalow rectangular turretes. Licenced for crenellation in 1378. (7)

Castle towers with curtain wall and adjacent buildings. Early/mid C14, probably incorporating earlier buildings; licence to crenellate 1379. Partial demolition and rebuilding c.1620; extensive C18 alterations and additions by D. Garrett, J. Paine, J. Carr; c.1814 by Joseph Browne; 1844-8 by William Burn; 1864 and later by Austin and Johnson. Property of Neville family until forfeited to Crown after 6th Earl of Westmorland took part in 1569 Rising of the North; 1626 acquired by Sir Henry Vane, whose descendants became successively Baron Barnard (Thomas Vane, in 1698), Earl of Darlington (Henry Vane, in 1754) and Duke of Cleveland (William Harry Vane, in 1833).

Coursed blocks of millstone grit (Bulmer's Tower) and limestone with plinth, some quoins, and ashlar dressings; roofs Lakeland slate. Irregular plan: 9 perimeter towers, from north clockwise: Clifford's, Kitchen, Mount Raskelf, Chapel, Bulmer's, Octagon, Joan's, Neville Gateway and Watch: linking buildings and wall; Keep in yard, attached to south-west corner of Kitchen tower; smaller yard beside Kitchen. Apart from Octagon and pentagonal Bulmer's, towers are rectangular. Great Hall runs along east side of main yard, linking Kitchen and Octagon towers. Principal entrance is Neville Gateway in west front. Listed Grade I.

Castle gate lodges, piers, gates. C18, by J. Carr. Listed Grade II.

Piers and pedestrian archways. Probably early C19. Listed Grade II. (8)

Monitoring of gas pipe trenches excavated between the gatehouse and the kitchen, and the gatehouse and Nevill Gateway, revealed medieval and later surfaces beneath shallow build-ups of modern material. (9)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Annotated Record Map
Source details : OS 6" 1954
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Scott O S. 1953. Raby: Its Castles and Its Lords
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Barnard Castle Rural District, Durham June 1965.
Page(s) : 13
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 BHP 12-MAR-73
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Symes M. 1993. A Glossary of Garden History, 17, 47, 48
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : Register of parks and gardens of special historic interest in England
Source details : Durham (October 1986)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : Part 13
Source Number : 7
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the islands. Volume I : Anglesey - Montgomery
Source details :
Page(s) : 137
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1
Source Number : 8
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : District of Teesdale, 07-Jan-1952
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number :
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Fraser R/1991/Gas Pipe Trenches at Raby Castle: An Archaeological Watching Brief for the Raby Estate.
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Pre C14
Monument End Date : 1300
Monument Start Date :
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Conjectural Evidence
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Early/mid C14 construction
Monument End Date : 1366
Monument Start Date : 1300
Monument Type : Castle, Keep, Curtain Wall, Angle Tower
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Licence to crenellate granted in 1379
Monument End Date : 1379
Monument Start Date : 1379
Monument Type : Castle, Keep, Angle Tower, Interval Tower, Gatehouse
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Partly demolished c1620
Monument End Date : 1630
Monument Start Date : 1610
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : C18 additions and alterations
Monument End Date : 1799
Monument Start Date : 1700
Monument Type : Castle, Gate Lodge
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : C19
Monument End Date : 1900
Monument Start Date : 1801
Monument Type : Gate Pier, Arch
Evidence : Structure
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Alterations and additions of c1814
Monument End Date : 1824
Monument Start Date : 1804
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Additions and alterations of 1844-8
Monument End Date : 1848
Monument Start Date : 1844
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Additions and alterations of 1864
Monument End Date : 1864
Monument Start Date : 1864
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Extant Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 111447
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 111471
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 111440
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NZ 12 SW 2
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 22087
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 12 SW 2
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1973-03-12
End Date : 1973-03-12
Associated Activities : Primary, RABY CASTLE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NEVILL'S GATEWAY, RABY CASTLE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2003-01-01
End Date : 2003-12-31