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Historic England Research Records

Southampton Castle

Hob Uid: 230568
Location :
City of Southampton
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : SU4191011410
Summary : Southampton Castle. A Norman motte and bailey was replaced by a stone castle by the latter 12th century, but the keep probably remained a timber structure until the end of the 13th century. A new keep with four turrets was built 1378-80. In 1618 the ruined castle was sold into private hands and in 1804 the ruins were incorporated into a 'Gothic' castle. This was removed in 1818 and the mound lowered in 1822. The site is now occupied by a block of flats though some remains such as the north bailey wall still survive. Scheduled.
More information : [SU 41911141] SOUTHAMPTON CASTLE [AT] (site of) (1)

The establishment of a castle at Southampton, soon after the Conquest, probably marked the inception of the Mediaeval town. The earliest castle was a motte (some 200ft. in diameter) surrounded by a deep ditch and probably surmounted by a timber fort and with a defensive bailey, within a palisaded bank and ditch, on its northern side.

Major attention was paid to the castle throughout Henry IIIs reign, pariculary to the King's cellars, the adjacent quay, and the royal lodgings. However, little attention seems to have been given to the defences of the castle, which Henry appears to have regarded more as a residence and wine depot rather than a defesible work. In 1286 the castle was said to be ruinous, and despite almost continual work on the towns defences, and the french raid of 1338, little provision was made for the castle's defences. The castle was granted to, and held by successive Queens as a dower house, until Queen Philippa demised it to Thomas West in 1333, and then tho John de beauchamp in 1343. In 1359 Philippa surrendered the castle to Edward III, who promptly granted it to the custody of first, Richard of Pembridge, and then in 1372 to john of Foxley.

In 1376 the men of the town of Southampton petitioned the King to take the town and its defence into his own hands, which led to the rebuilding of the keep, the creation of a mantlet and barbican, the works being completed in 1380. In 1386, Thomas Tredyngdon was appointed as keeper because of his expertise in artillery, several artillery pieces being kept within the castle. By 1585, the castle was described as ruinous.

The whole palisaded defence was replaced by stone by the latter half of the 12th.c. but the keep probably remained a timber structure until the end of the 13th.c. A new keep, with four turrets, was built 1378-80. In 1618 the ruined castle was sold to private hands and in 1804 the ruins were incorporated in a Gothic 'castle'. This was removed in 1818 and the mound was lowered in 1822. The site is now occupied by a block of flats.

The remains of Southampton Castle comprise the north wall of the bailey, the west wall of the bailey which was later used as the Md. town wall, the 14th.c. castle watergate, the late 12th.c. castle vault and the footings of the 14th.c. Castle Gate. For details see Map Diagram.

A silver penny of OFFA, found at the keep in 1822, (a) was
probably in material used for the construction of the motte. (1-4)

Listed by Cathcart King. (5)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 25" 1954
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society
Source details : (P.G.Stone)
Page(s) : 241-70
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 12 - 1932-4
Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Historic Buildings of Southampton, 1969,40-41,(P.Peberdy)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : History of Southampton,1908,74-84,(J.S.Davies)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 FGA 08-SEP-69
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : The history of the King's Works, volume 2 : the Middle Ages
Source details :
Page(s) : 840-4
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : built in stone
Monument End Date : 1199
Monument Start Date : 1150
Monument Type : Castle, Chemise
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Replaced 1188-9
Monument End Date : 1189
Monument Start Date : 1188
Monument Type : Keep
Evidence : Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : keep built late 14th
Monument End Date : 1380
Monument Start Date : 1378
Monument Type : Keep, Barbican, Curtain Wall
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : modifications from 1804 to 1822
Monument End Date : 1822
Monument Start Date : 1804
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : HA 241
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : HA 242
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : HA 481
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SU 41 SW 96
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 542634
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 542634
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, THE CASTLE MOUND, SITE 1 (SOU 145)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1959-01-01
End Date : 1960-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SU 41 SW 95
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1969-09-08
End Date : 1969-09-08
Associated Activities : Primary, 1 FOREST VIEW, (SOU 439)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, MASONIC HALL, ALBION PLACE (SOU 717)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, MADDISON COURT, CASTLE LANE (SOU 1008)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT MADDISON COURT, CASTLE LANE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT 1 FOREST VIEW
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 1 FOREST VIEW
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2003-01-01
End Date : 2003-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE HOUSE, CASTLE WAY AND SIMNEL STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2003-01-01
End Date : 2003-12-31