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Historic England Research Records

Winchester Castle

Hob Uid: 230951
Location :
Hampshire
Winchester
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : SU4771029440
Summary : A motte and bailey castle was probably built in 1067 and survived until the late 13th century. It was a favourite Royal residence with a complex of halls, chambers and chapels, but all that survives is the early 13th century Great Hall built by Henry III, now part of the County Offices complex. The entrance to the Great Hall was altered in the 19th century and the roof was renewed in 1873 by T H Wyatt. The medieval round table is situated on the west wall. The castle was demolished in 1645 and in 1683 a palace for Charles II was commenced, to be used successively as a prison and barracks, before being destroyed by fire in 1854. Scheduled.
More information : [SU 47712944] CASTLE [G.T.] (site of)
CASTLE WALL [G.T.] (site of)
CASTLE DITCH [G.T.] (site of)
[SU 47772947] CASTLE HALL [G.T.] (site of)
[SU 47702939] KING'S HOUSE [G.T.] (site of). (1)

Winchester Castle occupied several acres of rising ground at the west end of the city. The Motte, presumably the work of William or his sons,was situated at the southern end of the site,with the bailey occupying the majority of the remainder. Until the end of the 13th century it was a favourite royal residence with a complex of halls,chambers and chapels, but all that survives is the early 13th century Great Hall,now part of the County Offices complex. The eraliest reference to a keep is in 1196. In 1216 it was captured afetr a siege of 2 weeks by Louis of France using siege engines. Under Henry III, extensive repairs and alterations amounting to £10,000 were made. These included the demolition of the old hall and its replacement, the construction of interval towers, and the rebuilding of the great keep. Numerous chapels are also documented. The royal were badly damaged by fire in 1302, and appaently were not made good. The Great Hall was restored under Richard II. (2)

The castle was demolished in 1645 and in 1683 a palace for Charles II (The King's House) was commenced, to be used successively as a prison and a barracks before being destroyed by fire in 1854. (3)

Recent excavations in the vicinity of the hall have confirmed some of the details noted on Colvin's plan. (4)

Winchester Castle is mainly occupied by a modern army barracks. The surviving remains comprise the castle ditch preserved on the south and the Great Hall,now used as the County Court. Preserved within the Castle Hall is the so-called Round Table of King Arthur. Of considerable antiquity it is none the less merely a mappa mundi using the legend of Arthur as its motif.
For details of the castle see Saxon/Md. Winchester Map Diagram.
Published 1/2500 correct. See photograph. (5)

Excavations from 1968 to 1971 were carried out in the Castle Yard. (See SU 42 NE 1 for Iron Age and Roman levels). Two Anglo-Saxon streets were found below the castle earthworks, one of which had been repaired at least seven times. Timber pits and buildings of the same period have also been discovered.

The Castle was probably built about 1067 with a motte at the north end of the bailey and the rest of the castle built on an immense platform running north-south. A chapel of this period was also found. Nothing now remains of the early Norman defences or buildings; the castle was completely remodelled in the reign of Henry III.
Winchester Castle, Great Hall, remains of Round Tower and the Sally Port - scheduled. (6-9)

Listed by Cathcart King. (10)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 25" 1939
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : The history of the King's Works, volume 2 : the Middle Ages
Source details :
Page(s) : 854-64
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1963
Source Number : 11
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Winchester 14-Jan-1974
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : The Victoria history of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, volume five
Source details :
Page(s) : 12
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1912
Source Number : 4
Source : The Antiquaries journal : journal of the Society of Antiquaries of London
Source details : (M.Biddle).
Page(s) : 190-96
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 44 - 1962-3
Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 CFW 21-APR-68
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : The Antiquaries journal : journal of the Society of Antiquaries of London
Source details : (Biddle)
Page(s) : 296-302
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 49 - 1969
Source Number : 7
Source : The Antiquaries journal : journal of the Society of Antiquaries of London
Source details : (Biddle)
Page(s) : 285-92
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 50 - 1970
Source Number : 8
Source : The Antiquaries journal : journal of the Society of Antiquaries of London
Source details : (Biddle)
Page(s) : 100-9
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 55 - 1975
Source Number : 9
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : DOE (IAM) List Anc Mons 2 1978 103
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the islands. Volume I : Anglesey - Montgomery
Source details :
Page(s) : 193-4
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built 1067
Monument End Date : 1067
Monument Start Date : 1067
Monument Type : Motte And Bailey, Royal Palace, Treasury, Gaol, Royal Chapel
Evidence : Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Altered under Henry II
Monument End Date : 1189
Monument Start Date : 1154
Monument Type : Castle, Curtain Wall, Keep, Treasury, Gaol, Postern, Barbican, Royal Chapel, Great Hall, Royal Palace
Evidence : Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Altered under Henry III
Monument End Date : 1272
Monument Start Date : 1216
Monument Type : Castle, Ditch, Keep, Royal Chapel, Interval Tower, Curtain Wall, Great Hall, Royal Palace, Treasury
Evidence : Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built early C13
Monument End Date : 1240
Monument Start Date : 1232
Monument Type : Great Hall
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Demolished in 1645
Monument End Date : 1645
Monument Start Date :
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Ruined Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Destroyed by fire in 1854
Monument End Date : 1854
Monument Start Date :
Monument Type : Prison, Barracks
Evidence : Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Built c1683
Monument End Date :
Monument Start Date : 1683
Monument Type : Palace
Evidence : Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Alterations C19
Monument End Date : 1900
Monument Start Date : 1801
Monument Type : Great Hall
Evidence : Extant Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : HA 1
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 144464
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 107611
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SU 42 NE 127
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, WINCHESTER CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1797-01-01
End Date : 1797-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WINCHESTER CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1873-01-01
End Date : 1873-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WINCHESTER CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1930-01-01
End Date : 1931-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WINCHESTER CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1963-01-01
End Date : 1964-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE YARD, WINCHESTER
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1967-01-01
End Date : 1971-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SU 42 NE 126
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1968-04-21
End Date : 1968-04-21
Associated Activities : Primary, THE DAIS, GREAT HALL, WINCHESTER CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1975-01-01
End Date : 1975-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE YARD,WINCHESTER CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1978-01-01
End Date : 1981-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WINCHESTER CASTLE HALL (SOUTH SIDE)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1979-01-01
End Date : 1979-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE GREAT HALL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1980-01-01
End Date : 1989-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, PENINSULA BARRACKS
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, INVESTIGATION BY RCHME/EH ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1995-11-14
End Date : 1995-11-14
Associated Activities : Primary, QUEENS COURT, PENINSULA BARRACKS
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE BATH HOUSE, 16 ARCHERY LANE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31