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Historic England Research Records

Odiham Castle

Hob Uid: 244270
Location :
Hampshire
Hart
Odiham
Grid Ref : SU7255051870
Summary : A 13th century castle with the remains of an octagonal keep, inner and outer moat, and traces of an extramural settlement, situated on the site of an earlier, moated, castle. Used as a hunting lodge by the 15th century. Flint walls with stone dressings. Excavations during 1981-85 located an inner moat, and uncovered remains of buildings beneath the castle keep. The earliest buildings were dated to 1207-14. The keep was assigned to the early 13th century. Scheduled.
More information : (SU 72555187) ODIHAM CASTLE (G.T.) (Remains of) MOAT (G.T.). (1)

Odiham Castle, standing on an inner bend of the Whitewater, has two baileys, divided and defended all round by a moat. The buttressed, octagonal keep dating from c.1160, is in a ruinous condition but is still some 40 ft. high. The entrance has been destroyed but appears to have been at the second storey; both the second and third storeys have fireplaces and were well lighted. (2)

The moat seems originally to have been triple but this arrangement now only survives at the S.W. side and angle. The principal (inner) moat is 30-40' wide, water-filled and intact except where cut through by the Basingstoke Canal. "The ditches were not only defensive; they were used as fish-stews ...

To the N.E. or the smaller court are traces of an enclosure bounded by a deep ditch. (3)

The keep of this castle is as described by Toy: it is set slightly west of the centre of a rectangular raised area. On the east of this area is uneven ground containing flints and tile fragments probably marking the sites of buildings.

The raised area of the keep and buildings is bounded by a dry moat. On the S and part of the E. side this moat has been dug, but on the remaining sides it is formed by a bank averaging 6.0m. wide and 1.4 m. high. In the W. and at the N.W. corner is a similar, outer bank, presumably a further defence.

To the S.E. of the raised area is a rectangular bailey formed by a ditch, which has been incorporated into a modern hedgerow and drainage-ditch. The S.W. corner has been cut through by the Basingstoke Canal and on the S. side of the canal the corner of the ditch remains. On this side too, the additional banks of the W. side appear to be continued but are now too spread and mutilated to be surveyable.

On the N.E. side of the castle are shallow ditches which apparently form a third enclosure. That described by Dr. Williams-Freeman - as 'deep' is now mainly visible by weeds growing along its course. The area enclosed is not raised at all and forms part of a water-meadow. It seems probable that these ditches are for drainage of the area and not associated with the defensive earthworks. (4)

Published 1/2500 survey revised. No change. (5)

Grade I. (6)

Scheduled. (No.13). (7)

No change. 1:2500 Survey correct. (8)

Odiham Castle remains, listed grade I. (9)

Odiham Castle dated from 1207-14 and superceded an earlier royal residence at Odiham (on a different site). (10-12)

Excavations during 1981-1985 located an inner moat, and uncovered remains of buildings beneath the castle keep. The buildings were identified as part of King John's original castle and the octagonal keep provisionally assigned a a14th century date (cf. Authority 2). This date was later revised to 1225-6 when substantial reconstruction may have been necessary after the siege of 1216. The early 13th century monument appears to have consisted of a moated enclosure with at least two buildings, one of which may have been the `domus Regii' referred to in documentary evidence. The subsequent excavated sequence appears to follow the known historical sequence. The present keep would seem to be early 13th century, probably built in response to the siege of 1216, and was built in conjunction with the digging of an inner moat around it. At a later date a palisade was constructed around the inner moat. (13-16)

By the 15th century the site had lost its defensive significance and was being used as a hunting lodge, surrounded by a garden (cf. also SU 75 SW 8). (16-17)

A contour survey of the field immediately to the east of the castle site in 1986 identified what was thought to be the original castle approach and possible house platforms of a large extramural settlement. (SU75SW73) (18)

Additional bibliography. (19)

Odiham had been a royal residence in teh 12th century, but the present castle, built by King John from 1207 onwards, was built on a new site to the north-West of the town. According to a contemporary chronicler it was built for the King to enjoy hunting. Although usually in the King's hands, it was granted as a dowry to several Queen's until 1483, after which no mention of repairs are made. (20)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : O.S. 6" 1932
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : "Castles of Great Britain", 1953, Plan (S.Toy)
Page(s) : 103-104
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 11
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Odiham Castle 1200-1500 1983 (P MacGregor)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 12
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the islands. Volume I : Anglesey - Montgomery
Source details :
Page(s) : 191
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 13
Source : Archaeology in Hampshire, annual report
Source details :
Page(s) : 25-26
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1981
Source Number : 14
Source : Archaeology in Hampshire, annual report
Source details :
Page(s) : 37-40,54
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1982
Source Number : 15
Source : Archaeology in Hampshire, annual report
Source details :
Page(s) : 52-55,97
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1983
Source Number : 16
Source : Archaeology in Hampshire, annual report
Source details :
Page(s) : 39-42
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1984/5
Source Number : 17
Source : Post-medieval archaeology : the journal of the Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology
Source details :
Page(s) : 3615
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 18, 1984
Source Number : 18
Source : Archaeology in Hampshire, annual report
Source details :
Page(s) : 39
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1986
Source Number : 19
Source : Medieval military architecture in England. Volume 2
Source details : 1884
Page(s) : 336-346
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 2
Source Number : 20
Source : The history of the King's Works, volume 2 : the Middle Ages
Source details :
Page(s) : 767-8
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Field Archaeology as illustrated by Hampshire 1915, (J.P. Williams-Freeman)
Page(s) : 67-69,388
Figs. :
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Source Number :
Source : SU 75 SW 11 (Odiham Castle) (1967)
Source details :
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 WW 23-JUN-56
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Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F2 ASP 28-JUL-67
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 6
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Hartley wintney Rural District. 1951
Page(s) : 63
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : List of ancient monuments in England: Volume 1, Northern England; Volume 2, Southern England; Volume 3, East Anglia and the Midlands
Source details :
Page(s) : 103
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 2
Source Number : 8
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F3 JGB 24-NOV-82
Page(s) :
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Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : District of Hart, Hampshire (26-June-1987)
Page(s) : 193
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1687
Source Number : 10
Source : The history of the King's Works, volume 2 : the Middle Ages
Source details :
Page(s) : 766-8
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built 1207-14
Monument End Date : 1214
Monument Start Date : 1207
Monument Type : Castle, Settlement, Moat
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Probably circa 1225-6
Monument End Date : 1226
Monument Start Date : 1225
Monument Type : Castle, Moat, Keep
Evidence : Ruined Building, Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Possibly late C13
Monument End Date : 1299
Monument Start Date : 1267
Monument Type : Palisade
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Hunting lodge of C15
Monument End Date : 1499
Monument Start Date : 1400
Monument Type : Hunting Lodge
Evidence : Ruined Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : HA 13
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 24326
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 136964
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SU 75 SW 11
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1331080
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SU 75 SW 11
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1956-06-23
End Date : 1956-06-23
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SU 75 SW 11
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1967-07-28
End Date : 1967-07-28
Associated Activities : Primary, ODIHAM CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1981-01-01
End Date : 1983-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SU 75 SW 11
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1982-11-24
End Date : 1982-11-24
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: ODIHAM CASTLE SURVEY
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 2004-01-01
End Date : 2004-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE MILL HOUSE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2006-01-01
End Date : 2006-12-31