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Historic England Research Records

Butterwick

Hob Uid: 25752
Location :
County Durham
Sedgefield
Grid Ref : NZ3860029900
Summary : Site of the deserted settlement of Butterwick, recorded in 1183 with a further reference in 1564 as a capital messuage. The medieval settlement is seen as earthworks with evidence of a field system and fishponds; the field system is overlain by later ridge and furrow ploughing.
More information : NZ 385298 Butterwick deserted medieval village. (1)

`In 1183 the township of Butterwick paid a due of malt to the
bishop.' (a)

There was a capital messuage in Butterwick in 1564. (b) (2)

House platforms and depressions appear on air photographs with superimposed ridge and furrow. East of Butterwick East Farm are the possible remains of three fish ponds. (3)

The only earthworks probably associated with the deserted village are: (See illustration).

1. Centred at NZ 38602985 in a level pasture field are the remains of a probable hollow way, 3.2m wide and 0.8m deep. Both sides of this hollow way have been overploughed by ridge and furrow, and `scallops' on the north side are probably modern mutilations caused during construction of a sewer along the hollow. A ditch 2m wide and 0.4m deep, on the north side of the hollow way, is most likely an old stream course. At the west end of, and abutting, the hollow way is a partially enclosed platform 19m east-west by 11.5m and 0.5m high, formed by turf scarps and of uncertain purpose. A field bank adjoining this platform on the south side would appear to be contemporary with it. Two overploughed depressions, one on either side of this bank, may be the remains of small field enclosures. A further depression, which is overploughed by ridge and furrow, to the north of the platform, may represent a further hollow way. The surviving earthworks in this area probably represent the field enclosures and hollow ways associated with the Medieval village of Butterwick, although the later ridge and furrow has obscured the original extent and plan.

2. NZ 3872029934. Situated in a pasture field which has
been intensively ridge and furrow ploughed is a turf covered platform 14m north west - south east by 8m containing small amounts of undressed rubble. This platform is situated at the west end of an unploughed rectangular depression 38m east -west by 17m approximately, the whole probably representing the remains of a house and croft.

The area immediately south of Butterwick West Farm may have yielded evidence of the village site (Authority 3) but ridge and furrow ploughing and extensive modern landscaping have collectively destroyed any surface evidence. During drainage works in this area a cobble-floored area was discovered but was subsequently destroyed (a). The fishponds mentioned by Authority 3 have now been destroyed.

Surveyed at 1:250 (4)

The deserted medieval settlement of Butterwick is visible as earthworks on air photographs. The settlement is visible as a series of banks and ditches overlain by post medieval ridge and furrow, with a possible holloway centred at NZ 3860 2986, there are four possible fishponds centred around NZ 3829 2984 and a what appears to be a large platform with associated banks and ditch centred at NZ 3844 2976. The settlement is centred at NZ 3865 2989.
(5)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : DMV 1971 186 (Beresford & Hurst)
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Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : VCH Durham 1928 3 323 (W Page)
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Source Number : 2a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : VCH Durham 1 331 (W Page)
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Source Number : 2b
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Dur Rec cl 3 no 6 fol 27
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Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : APs (RAF 540/642 3214-6 10.12.51)
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Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 SA 11-FEB-81
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Source Number : 5
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : RAF 540/642 3215 10-DEC-1951
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Extant 1183
Monument End Date : 1183
Monument Start Date : 1183
Monument Type : Deserted Settlement, Village, Fishpond, Field System, Bank (Earthwork), Mound, Platform, Ditch, Hollow Way
Evidence : Earthwork, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Recorded 1564
Monument End Date : 1564
Monument Start Date : 1564
Monument Type : Deserted Settlement, Village, Field System, Ridge And Furrow
Evidence : Earthwork

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NZ 32 NE 7
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 32 NE 7
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1981-02-11
End Date : 1981-02-11
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE:DURHAM- ASSESSMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCE IN AGGREGATES AREA, NMP PROJECT VARIATION.
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2007-04-11
End Date : 2007-08-31