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Historic England Research Records

Hylton Castle

Hob Uid: 26206
Location :
Sunderland
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : NZ3578258791
Summary : The remains of part of a fortified medieval manor house which was modified throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. The only upstanding remains of the house are the gatehouse tower, a large tower house of circa 1400 built over the west gateway of the house. The gatehouse was built by Sir William Hylton, whose family had held the manor since at least 1157. The gatetower was primarily the residence of the barons Hylton throughout the 15th and 16th centuries. By 1700 the gatehouse became the basis for a large house, which was built in two phases between 1700 and 1746. A north wing was added between 1700 and 1712, and a matching south wing was constructed between 1712 and 1746. The north wing no longer survives as a standing feature and the south wing has three courses of ashlar sandstone blocks upstanding. The wings were demolished in the 1860s when the windows and entrance were 'medievalised' and the interior stripped of its 18th century modifications to give the gatetower its present appearance.Hylton Castle survives as a substantial rectangular building and was originally four-storeyed. The ground floor included a central gate-passage flanked by vaulted chambers. The first floor was occupied by the baron's hall and solar, and also a kitchen with an attached buttery and pantry. A second similar private chamber lay above, on the second floor, and a third existed above the oratory. A fourth lay above the service rooms, while a fifth and sixth occupied the next two floor levels. Around all but the north wall of the tower, the parapets round the roof and turrets are machicolated. Statues of men-at-arms stand on the battlements above the west front of the tower while below, on the face of the central turrets and the wall above the gate, is a rich display of medieval heraldic devices which, by their form, provide important evidence of when the tower was built. The site is in the care of English Heritage.
More information : NZ 3578 5879. Hylton Castle (NR) (restored) (NAT) (1)

Hylton Castle, a self contained gatehouse-tower type castle built circa 1398-1405 by Sir William Hylton. The Hylton family had recorded associations with the place since 1157 and it is likely that the gatehouse-tower castle joined earlier buildings on the site. N and S domestic wings were added to the castle in the early C18th but these were demolished by William Briggs in 1863. In 1950 the castle was taken into care by the then Ministry of Works. Plan. Pevsner says that no record survives of the outbuildings except for the chapel (See NZ 35 NE 20). (2-3)

Hylton Castle, early C15th with alterations, built as gatehouse to an earlier castle, grade 2*. (4)

The roof has been removed but the castle has been renovated and is in the care of the D of E. See ground photographs. Published survey (1:1250) Revised. (5)

NZ 359 588, Hylton Castle. Additional reference. (6)

NZ 3579 5880. Hylton Castle fortified medieval manor, chapel &
eighteenth century house. Scheduled RSM No 23230. The upstanding gatehouse of the fortified manor, built in the last decade of the 14th century or in the early 15th century. Alterations were made in the 18th century, when the tower became the basis for a larger classical house, built in two phases between c.1700 and 1746. This work was demolished in the 1860s during 'medievalising' work, and no remains survive above ground, except for the NW corner turret, although the appearance of this house is known from contemporary illustrations, notably an engraving by Samuel and Nathaniel Buck dated 1728 and a painting dated c.1800 by an unknown artist. The tower was saved from demolition in 1950 when it passed into State care. (7)

Included in gazeetteer by Cathcart King. (8)

See source 7. (9)

Additional reference. (10)

Source Includes a brief accessible overview of Hlyton Castle for visitors. (11)

Discussion of geophysical and earthwork surveys suggesting evidence for later postmedieval buildings and garden features at Hylton Castle. (12)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 1:10 000 1974
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Hylton Castle [Tyne & Wear]
Source details :
Page(s) : 118-34, 237-8
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 133
Source Number : 11
Source : Heritage unlocked: Guide to free sites in Yorkshire and the north east
Source details :
Page(s) : 76-77
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 12
Source : The Archaeological Journal
Source details : Article by Beric Morley and Stephen Speak: "Excavation and survey at Hylton Castle, Sunderland"
Page(s) : 258-265
Figs. : 01-Jun
Plates :
Vol(s) : 159, 2003
Source Number : 3
Source : Durham
Source details :
Page(s) : 174
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Sunderland, NOV-1978
Page(s) : 70
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 920
Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 ISS 01-NOV-78
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : Hylton Castle, Tyne and Wear
Source details :
Page(s) :
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Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 11-Oct-93
Page(s) :
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Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Sunderland, 17-OCT-1994
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 920-1
Source Number : 9
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 10-Jan-00
Page(s) :
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the Islands. Volume II : Norfolk-Yorkshire and the islands
Source details :
Page(s) : 136
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built c1400
Monument End Date : 1410
Monument Start Date : 1390
Monument Type : Fortified Manor House, Gatehouse, Tower House
Evidence : Ruined Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : 1700-1712
Monument End Date : 1712
Monument Start Date : 1700
Monument Type : Country House
Evidence : Ruined Building, Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : 1712-1746
Monument End Date : 1746
Monument Start Date : 1712
Monument Type : Country House
Evidence : Ruined Building, Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Partly demolished 1860s
Monument End Date : 1869
Monument Start Date : 1860
Monument Type : Country House
Evidence : Ruined Building, Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : DU 20
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 32074
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : TW 24
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 391434
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : TW 23230
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : EH Property Number
External Cross Reference Number : 132
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 110939
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NZ 35 NE 21
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 26201
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1303690
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, HYLTON CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1956-01-01
End Date : 1956-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 35 NE 21
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1978-11-01
End Date : 1978-11-01
Associated Activities : Primary, HYLTON CASTLE
Activity type : MANAGEMENT SURVEY
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HYLTON CASTLE (TIME TEAM)
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HYLTON CASTLE GARDENS
Activity type : MANAGEMENT SURVEY
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HYLTON DENE INTERCEPTOR SEWER
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HYLTON CASTLE PREMIER PARK
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HYLTON CASTLE, SUNDERLAND
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT HYLTON CASTLE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2003-01-01
End Date : 2003-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HYLTON CASTLE PARK
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HYLTON CASTLE, COAT OF ARMS
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT HYLTON CASTLE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31