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Historic England Research Records

Wallsend Roman Fort

Hob Uid: 26535
Location :
North Tyneside
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : NZ3002066020
Summary : The site of the Roman fort at Wallsend, identified as Segedunum, the eastern-most terminal fort of Hadrian's Wall. Excavations between 1975 and 1984 uncovered almost the whole area of the fort; it is approximately 1.5 hectares in area. Three main periods of the fort were identified. In Period I, beginning circa AD 125, the stone-built fort contained headquarters, commanding officer's house, granary, a possible hospital, workshops, barracks and stables; in Period II, beginning between circa AD 180 to 230, a bath suite was inserted in the commander's house, a cross-hall was built in front of the principia, water tanks were installed, and barracks and stables were remodelled; in Period III, the late 3rd to 4th centuries saw the barracks re-built, construction of industrial buildings and shacks, the demolition of the hospital and its replacement by strip-houses. Occupation continued until the end of the Roman period. Following the conclusion of excavations in 1984, the outline of the fort has been delineated, the headquarters building footings consolidated, and a new Heritage Centre opened. Further excavations in 1997-8 identified that the fort was built directly over an Iron Age field system, still being actively cultivated immediately prior to the building of the fort in the Hadrianic period. This site also provides the only full plan of a Wall-fort as first built in the 120s.
More information : [NZ 3005 6604] SEGEDVNVM ROMAN FORT (R) (Site of) (1)

The plan of the fort [Segedvnvm of the Notitia] was recovered by excavation in 1929. It measured 453ft N to S, and 393ft E to W enclosing an area of four acres by a single ditch, 21ft wide, with a 23ft berm; except between the S gate and SE angle where both were 16ft. The narrow gauge Wall joined the W side immediately below the gate, and proved contemporary with it, associating the fort with the second phase of the Hadrianic frontier. A branch Wall ran from the SE angle to the River Tyne, at least as far as low-water level. There are no visible remains in situ, but outlines of some structures are marked on the modern surface. (1-3)

Paving sets and plaques noting the positions of the NE angle, the S wall, at NZ 3008 6597, and the four gates are the only visible indications of the fort. Surveyed at 1/1250. (4)

Name 'SEGVDVNVM' accepted for 4th edition R B Map (4a). Demolition of the C19th houses overlying Wallsend fort allowed excavations to be undertaken in 1975-76. The fort buildings appeared to have been demolished in the late C3rd - early C4th and the fort area cobbled over, although a collection of small irregularly spaced timber buildings of unknown purpose were erected over some of the earlier (C2nd-C3rd) barrack blocks, giving a totally new street plan and layout to the then half empty fort. Early C2nd - late C4th pottery was found. (5-7)

The SE portion of the fort is at present being excavated by Mr C M Daniels (Authority 7 and an updated report and plan should be available sometime in 1979). These excavations have exposed parts of the E and S perimeter wall, barrack blocks, interval tower and internal roadway. Published survey 1/1250 revised. (8)

The site has been infilled and no trace of any of the excavated features are now visible. (9)

Segedunum - The Roman fort at Wallsend. (10)

NZ 30 66. Wallsend Roman Fort.
Plough-marks pre-dating the Roman fort discovered in 1978. (11)

Additional reference. (12)

NZ 300 661. Wallsend Roman Fort.
A bronze strap-end decorated with 9thC zoomorphic ornament, was found on an early 19th century road surface in the N part of the fort. (13)

Excavations between 1975 and 1984 uncovered almost the whole area of the fort. Three main periods were isolated. In Period I, beginning c125, the stone-built fort contained headquarters, commanding officer's house, granary, ?hospital, workshops, barracks and stables; in Period II, beginning between c180 and c230, a bath suite was inserted in the commander's house, a cross-hall was built in front of the HQ, water tanks were installed, and barracks and stables were remodelled; Period III, late 3rd to 4th centuries, saw the barracks re-built as chalets, construction of industrial buildings and shacks, the demolition of the hospital and its replacement by strip-houses. Occupation continued until the end of the Roman period. Following the conclusion of excavations in 1984, the outline of the fort has been delineated, the headquarters building footings consolidated and a new Heritage Centre opened. (14)

NZ 300 600. Wallsend Roman fort, Segedunum. Scheduled No TW/28. (15)

Survey of the extent and preservation of the known archaeological deposits of the fort and its environs. (16)

The site was photographed from the air in 1977 when the land had been stripped to allow excavation. It was photographed again from the air in 1992, following the consolidation of building footings found by excavation in the centre of the fort, and when much of the extent of the fort had been outlined. (17-18)

Depiction of the south-east angle of Segedunum (1879) from the James Irwin Coates Archive. (19)

Excavations in 1997-8 identified that the fort was built directly over an Iron Age field system, still being actively cultivated immediately prior to the building of the fort in the Hadrianic period. This site provides the only full plan of a Wall-fort as first built in the 120s. The stone defences contained timber barracks, although the principal central-range of buildings were of stone. The Hadrianic fort accommodated a cohors quingenaria equitata. Its four calvary troops (turmae) were housed in the four barrack blocks of the retentura, without any separate stables (standard for cavalry in the principate). In the second half of the second century the timber barracks were re-built in stone. The fort plan remain unchanged except for the addition of a courtyard building (probably a hospital), and a forehall fronting the principia. A major reorganisation of the garrison occurred before the mid-third century. The fourth-century levels had been largely removed by agricultural and industrial activity before the 1975-84 excavations. (20)

Located on the English Heritage map of Hadrian's Wall 2010. (21)


Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 1:1250 1954
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Research on Hadrian's Wall
Source details :
Page(s) : 159-60
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : The place-names of Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 452-3
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 11
Source : The prehistory of Tyne and Wear : an inventory of prehistoric discoveries in the Metropolitan County of Tyne and Wear
Source details : No.8
Page(s) : 78
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 12
Source : Rural settlement in the Roman north
Source details :
Page(s) : 15, 35
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 13
Source : Medieval archaeology : journal of the Society for Medieval Archaeology
Source details : (L E Webster and J Cherry)
Page(s) : 214
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 21, 1977
Source Number : 14
Source : The eleventh Pilgrimage of Hadrian's Wall, 26 August-1 September 1989
Source details :
Page(s) : 77-83
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 15
Source : County list of Scheduled Monuments : March 1994
Source details : Tyne and Wear
Page(s) : 10
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 16
Source : The Roman fort at Wallsend and its environs : a survey of the extent and preservation of the archaeological deposits
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 17
Source : RCHME/EH/HE Aerial Photographers comment
Source details : NMR NZ 3066/3 (1220/3) 25-AUG-1977
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 18
Source : RCHME/EH/HE Aerial Photographers comment
Source details : NMR NZ 3066/33 (13884/72) 21-APR-1992
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 19
Source : Hadrian's Wall: archaeological research by English Heritage 1976-2000
Source details :
Page(s) : 11
Figs. : 9
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Handbook to the Roman Wall 12th Edn 1966 (J Collingwood Bruce, Ed I A Richmond)
Page(s) : 40-3
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 20
Source : Hadrian's Wall 1999-2009
Source details :
Page(s) : 73-6
Figs. : 11-Dec
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 21
Source : An Archaeological Map of Hadrian's Wall, 1:25,000 scale
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 BHP 12-JAN-68
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : Current archaeology
Source details :
Page(s) : 92-3
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 50, 1970
Source Number : 6
Source : Current archaeology
Source details :
Page(s) : 244
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 55, 1977
Source Number : 7
Source : Archaeological excavations
Source details : (C M Daniells)
Page(s) : 78
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1975
Source Number : 8
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F2 SA 26-AUG-78
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F3 ISS 26-JAN-79
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9a
Source : Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne
Source details :
Page(s) : 212
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 5, 1911-12

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Iron Age
Display Date : Iron Age
Monument End Date : 43
Monument Start Date : -800
Monument Type : Plough Marks
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 125
Monument Type : Fort
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : TW 28
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : ViewFinder
External Cross Reference Number : J960244
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NZ 36 NW 8
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 943058
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1156491
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 942896
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, WALLSEND (SEGEDUNUM)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1883-01-01
End Date : 1883-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WALLSEND (SEGEDUNUM)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1895-01-01
End Date : 1895-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HUNTER STREET/CARVILLE HOUSE (SEGEDUNUM)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1912-01-01
End Date : 1912-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WALLSEND (SEGEDUNUM)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1929-01-01
End Date : 1929-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 36 NW 8
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1968-01-12
End Date : 1968-01-12
Associated Activities : Primary, WALLSEND (SEGEDUNUM)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1975-01-01
End Date : 1984-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 36 NW 8
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1978-08-26
End Date : 1978-08-26
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 36 NW 8
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1979-01-26
End Date : 1979-01-26
Associated Activities : Primary, WALLSEND DITCHES
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THERMAL SYNDICATE, WALLSEND
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, STATION RD./BUDDLE ST. CAR PARK, WALLSEND
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WALLSEND (SEGEDUNUM)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WALLSEND (SEGEDUNUM) ROMAN FORT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WALLSEND ARCHAEOLOGICAL PARK (SEGEDUNUM)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: HADRIAN'S WALL WHS MAPPING PROJECT, NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BUDDLE STREET, WALLSEND
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SEGEDUNUM ROMAN FORT, INFORMATION PANELS
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2006-01-01
End Date : 2006-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BUDDLE STREET/CARVILLE ROAD
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BUDDLE STREET, WALLSEND
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FOSSWAY SUBSTATION
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SEGEDUNUM ROMAN FORT
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SEGEDUNUM ROMAN FORT
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WALLSEND ROMAN FORT, BUDDLE STREET
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SWAN HUNTER SHIPYARD
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2013-01-01
End Date : 2013-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SEGEDUNUM MUSEUM, BUDDLE STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31