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Historic England Research Records

Amesbury 54 (Goddard)

Hob Uid: 219678
Location :
Wiltshire
Amesbury
Grid Ref : SU1118042839
Summary : A Bronze Age round barrow survives as earthworks within Fargo Plantation and forms part of the Cursus Barrow Group (Monument Number 219681). It is not symmetrical but measures an overall diameter of circa 38m. It comprises a mound of two phases of construction which sits on a plinth and is surrounded by a shallow ring ditch. The barrow was excavated by Cunnington for Hoare in the early 19th century (Barrow 39) who discovered a primary inhumation with a Beaker, flint spear head and polished stone object (later identified as a hammer) and two secondary inhumations, one with another Beaker. Finds from the primary burial are in Devizes Museum. The barrow was listed as a bowl barrow (Amesbury 54) by Goddard and by Grinsell. The earthworks were observed by English Heritage in November 2010 during a rapid field investigation of Fargo South as part of the Stonehenge WHS Landscape Project.
More information : (SU 11174283) Tumulus (AT). (1)

SU 11184285; Amesbury 54, a bowl barrow 6 ft high and 78 ft in
diameter, Wessex Grave 39 (2). Excavations by Colt Hoare (Barrow 39) located a primary inhumation with an 'A' beaker, a flint dagger and a polished stone object, and 2 secondary inhumations. The upper was accompanied by a drinking cup, and the lower, a female, with amber and faience beads and a "bason (sic) ornamented around the verge". (3)

Beaker, dagger and polished stone are in Devizes Museum (DM 477-9).
The stone (P280) is ungrouped and wrongly ascribed to barrow 39 in
the PPS. (4-5)

A bowl barrow 1.1m high. Published 1:2500 survey revised. (6)

Originally recorded as Amesbury 54 by Goddard and described by Maud Cunnington in 1913 as overgrown with bushes and nettles and much defaced by rabbits. (7)

The CBA Implement Petrology Committee lists the polished stone object as a siliceous hornstone hammer (Wilts. no. 63). (8)

The barrow falls within the area mapped from aerial photographs by both RCHME's Salisbury Plain Training Area NMP and EH's Stonehenge WHS Mapping Project. It has been included on the survey maps, but is covered by trees, and no further information could be added from aerial photographic evidence. (10)

The Bronze Age round barrow referred to above (1-10) survives as earthworks within Fargo Plantation and is located at roughly SU 1117 4283. It comprises an asymmetrical mound of two phases of construction which sits on a plinth and is surrounded by a ring ditch. The plinth is 0.35m high, the lower mound 0.85m high and the upper mound is 1m high. The southern ditch is 4.6m wide and 0.1m deep.

North from the approximate centre, the edge of the mound's summit is at 3m; the bottom of the upper mound at 6.8m; the top of the lower mound at 9m; the bottom of the lower mound at 12.2m; the top of the plinth at 14.3m, and the bottom of the plinth at 16m. South from the approximate centre, the edge of the mound's summit is at 3.4m; the bottom of the upper mound at 6.8m; the top of the lower mound at 9.2m; the bottom of the lower mound at 11.4m; the top of the plinth at 12.9m; the bottom of the plinth at 14.4m and the far side of the ditch at 19m.

The earthworks suggest its original form was more complex than a simple bowl barrow, although ploughing in the early 19th century and subsequent vegetation as part of the plantation have probably caused damage to the monument. The earthworks were observed by English Heritage in November 2010 during a rapid field investigation (Level 1 survey) of Fargo South as part of the Stonehenge WHS Landscape Project. (11-12)


Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 25"
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Source Number : 2
Source : A history of Wiltshire: volume 1, part 1
Source details : LV Grinsell: Archaeological Gazetteer
Page(s) : 151
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Source Number : 11
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : Sharon Bishop/16-NOV-2010/English Heritage: Stonehenge WHS Landscape Project
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Source Number : 12
Source : Research Department Report Series
Source details : Komar A M & Bishop, S 'Fargo South.' Stonehenge World Heritage Site Landscape Project. Archaeological survey report. RDRS 96-2010. Swindon: English Heritage.
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Source : SU 14 SW 31, 42 (The Cursus), 57, 86, 87, 133 (SU 1142) (1969-71)
Source details :
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Source Number : 3
Source : The ancient history of Wiltshire
Source details :
Page(s) : 163
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Source Number : 4
Source : Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society
Source details :
Page(s) : 248
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 28, 1962
Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : FK Annable, DDA Simpson (1964) Gudie Catalogue to the Neolithic and Bronze Age Collections in Devizes Museum, p39 nos. 67-9
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Source Number : 6
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 ANK 28-JUL-70
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Source Number : 7
Source : The Wiltshire archaeological and natural history magazine
Source details : EH Goddard: A list of prehistoric, Roman and pagan Saxon antiquities in the county of Wiltshire...
Page(s) : 169
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Vol(s) : 38, 1913-14
Source Number : 8
Source : Stone axe studies, volume 2 : the petrology of prehistoric stone implements from the British Isles
Source details :
Page(s) : 156
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Vol(s) : no.67
Source Number : 9
Source : Archaeological assessment of the Stonehenge World Heritage Site and its surrounding landscape
Source details : Record number 556
Page(s) : 187
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Source Number : 10
Source : RCHME/EH/HE Aerial Photographers comment
Source details : English Heritage: Stonehenge WHS Mapping Project
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Early Bronze Age
Display Date : Early Bronze Age
Monument End Date : -1600
Monument Start Date : -2600
Monument Type : Bowl Barrow, Inhumation, Round Barrow
Evidence : Earthwork, Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Period : Early Bronze Age
Component Monument Type : Bowl Barrow, Inhumation, Round Barrow
Object Type : VESSEL, BEAD, HAMMERSTONE, DAGGER
Object Material : Pottery, Faience, Amber, Flint

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Wiltshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 726
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : WI 65F
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Wiltshire)
External Cross Reference Number : SU14SW726
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 10335
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SU 14 SW 86
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FARGO PLANTATION
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date :
End Date :
Associated Activities : Primary, FARGO PLANTATION
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1800-01-01
End Date : 1810-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SU 14 SW 86
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1970-07-28
End Date : 1970-07-28
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: SALISBURY PLAIN TRAINING AREA NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 1994-12-01
End Date : 1995-08-01
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: STONEHENGE WHS MAPPING PROJECT NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2001-02-01
End Date : 2001-07-01
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: STONEHENGE WHS LANDSCAPE PROJECT
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2013-12-31