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Historic England Research Records

Benwell Vallum Crossing

Hob Uid: 1156375
Location :
Newcastle upon Tyne
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : NZ2156364635
Summary : The exposed remains of a stone-built Roman causeway, where the Roman road from the south crossed the Vallum earthwork on its way to Benwell fort. The Vallum crossing comprised revetted vertical sides of masonry covered by a heavily metalled road. On the axis of the ditch the causeway was crowned by a monumental, non-defensive gateway, which, even after the ditch was obliterated in about AD 200, was maintained for the remainder of the Roman period. The Vallum causeway contained six periods of road metalling. The first has been assigned to Hadrian and the third from bottom to Severus. The remaining upper levels are of uncertain date. Pivot-stones of the gates appear in the first (Hadrianic) and fifth levels; the latter may have represented an attempt to fortify the vicus which had grown up after the Vallum had been filled.
More information : [NZ 21556463] GATEWAY (R) (Remains of)
PERMANENT CAUSEWAY (R) (1)

The Vallum crossing is a natural causeway, with revetted vertical sides of masonry, and covered by the heavily metalled road. On the axis of the ditch the causeway was crowned by a monumental, non-defensive gateway, which, even after the ditch was obliterated c.AD 200 was maintained for the remainder of the Roman period. (1-3)

The causeway and remains of the gateway, together with adjacent sections of the Vallum are permanently exposed. It is the only example od such a crossing which may now be inspected.
Published 1:1250 survey correct. See GP. (4)

Under guardianship. (5)

Salway states that the Vallum causeway contained six periods of road metalling. The first was assigned to Hadrian and the third from bottom to Severus. The remaining upper levels are of uncertain date. Pivot-stones of the gates appear in the first (Hadrianic) and fifth levels only; the latter probably representing an attempt to fortify the vicus (NZ 26 SW 65) which had grown up after the Vallum had been filled. (6)

The exposed remains of a stone-built Roman causeway, where the Roman road from the south crossed the Vallum earthwork on its way to Benwell fort. (7)

Basic directions for visitors: immediately south of A69, at Benwell in Broombridge Avenue, OS map 88, ref 1NZ 217647. (8)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 1:1250 1959
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Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Bruce J C 1966 Handbook to the Roman Wall
Page(s) : 49-51
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Source Number : 3
Source : Research on Hadrian's Wall
Source details :
Page(s) : 165
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Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 RWE 04-JAN-68
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Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : DOE(IAM) Ancient Monuments of England 1971
Page(s) : 164
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Source Number : 6
Source : The frontier people of Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 71-2
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Source Number : 7
Source : English Heritage Members' and Visitors' handbook 2008/9
Source details :
Page(s) : 241
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Source Number : 8
Source : Heritage unlocked: Guide to free sites in Yorkshire and the north east
Source details :
Page(s) : 81-82
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Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman in date
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Vallum, Causeway, Gate
Evidence : Earthwork, Structure

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : TW 28(12)
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : EH Property Number
External Cross Reference Number : 79
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NZ 26 SW 67
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 25174
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 25041
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1156397
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, BENWELL VALLUM CROSSING
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1933-01-01
End Date : 1933-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 26 SW 67
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1968-01-04
End Date : 1968-01-04