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Historic England Research Records

Monument Number 364463

Hob Uid: 364463
Location :
City of Peterborough
Castor
Grid Ref : TL1240098500
Summary : The site of a Roman villa with bath house, painted wall plaster, heated rooms and mosaics. The site includes a possible temple, probable 'guild' complex.
More information : (TL 12499854) Roman Villa (R) (Site of) (NAT)

Massive wall foundations visible in the 19th century led older
antiquarians to suppose that Castor was the site of a walled Roman
town. Artis (3) carried out large scale excavations and recovered
the plans of a number of substantial Roman buildings of the villa
type. These have been interpreted as the remains of a single
large courtyard villa, but they are more likely to be the fragments
of a series of houses arranged on and around the rising ground (2).
One of the buildings was considered by Artis to be a temple and
this is accepted by Lewis, "The massive nature of the podium
and the plan of the building makes the interpretation as a temple
well-nigh certain," and he considered the site to represent a
group of small houses spread round a temple of classical type. (4)
Further excavation has been carried out on the site, and buildings,
including the bathhouse, have been re-investigated (5).

There seems to be some measure of agreement that the buildings are
associated with the pottery industry (5) (7).

(For location of buildings, from auth 2 & 5 see 1:2500 diagram.
The RCHM grid references do not correspond with the buildings
as plotted from auth 5).

The buildings probably represent a series of detached houses
erected about AD 250 on terraces in the hillside, facing south,
around a rectangular court or garden. Many of the rooms were heated
and were decorated with painted wall plaster and mosaics by the
Durobrivan school. It seems likely that the whole complex can be
regarded as a "praetorium" erected by a guild, using the profits
of the pottery industry.

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1958
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Peterborough New Town 1969 24-26 (RCHM)
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Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Durobrivae of Antoninus 1828 plan (E T Artis)
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Figs. :
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Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Temples in Ro Brit 1966 61 (Lewis)
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Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Bull Fed NAS 7 1972 13-19 plan
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 6
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Notes on Ro Pottery Ind in Nene Valley 1960 7 (B R Hartley)
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 7
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Town & Country in Ro Brit 1958 114. (A L F Rivet)
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 8
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Arch J 131 1974 152 164-5 plan photo (J P Wild)
Page(s) :
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Baths, Villa, Temple, Mosaic
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Period : Roman
Component Monument Type : Baths, Villa, Temple, Mosaic
Object Type : WALL PLASTER
Object Material :

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CB 93
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Cambridgeshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 1873
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Cambridgeshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 01873/02118
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Cambridgeshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 1870
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : TL 19 NW 63
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTOR VILLAGE,THE PRAETORIUM
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1820-01-01
End Date : 1827-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, STOCKS HILL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1957-01-01
End Date : 1957-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, OS FIELD 7447
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1957-01-01
End Date : 1957-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CHURCH HILL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1958-01-01
End Date : 1958-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ELMLEA, 29 STOCKS HILL, CASTOR
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1970-01-01
End Date : 1970-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ELMLEA, 29 STOCKS HILL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1973-01-01
End Date : 1973-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ELMLEA, 29 STOCKS HILL, CASTOR
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1982-01-01
End Date : 1982-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTOR SCHOOL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE CEDARS, CASTOR
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ST KYNEBURGA'S CHURCH, CASTOR
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTOR PRIMARY SCHOOL
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BENEFICE CENTRE, ST. KYNEBURGHA'S CHURCH
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31