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Historic England Research Records

Monument Number 309539

Hob Uid: 309539
Location :
Derbyshire
High Peak
Castleton
Grid Ref : SK1508082890
Summary : The earthwork remains of the medieval town defences of Castleton are visible on air photographs. The features appear to be extant on the latest EARTH.GOOGLE.COM photography (accessed 08-OCT-2009). The monument lies in two areas towards the outer limits of the town in the north west and south east corners. The construction of the bank and ditch are thought to have been connected with the foundation of the borough in 1196 after Henry II acquired Peveril Castle from the original owners, the Peverels. The monument survives as a linear earthwork which includes a bank and outer ditch. The bank is approximately 12 metres wide and the ditch is of a similar width. The section to the south east of the town measures 200 metres in length and runs east to west for 100 metres before turning to the north and running in this direction for a further 100 metres. The section to the north west of the town measures 105 metres in length and is aligned north to south but curves to the east at its northern end. This section of the monument is more clearly defined with the bank sloping down steeply to the west and north. A mill stream now occupies this section of the town ditch. The town was totally enclosed within the earthwork defences but elsewhere these have been levelled, infilled and encroached on by later development. Nevertheless, the original line of the town defences can still be traced from the surviving remains on the north west side to those on the south east side of the town. The mill stream marks the line of the ditch on the northern side of the town and the curve in Mill Lane follows the line around the north east corner. Scheduled.
More information : (Centred SK 15208282) Town Ditch (NR)
The monument lies in two areas towards the outer limits of the town in the north west and south east corners. The construction of the bank and ditch are thought to have been connected with the foundation of the borough in 1196 after Henry II acquired Peveril Castle from the original owners, the Peverels. The monument survives as a linear earthwork which includes a bank and outer ditch. The bank is approximately 12 metres wide and the ditch is of a similar width. The section to the south east of the town measures 200 metres in length and runs east to west for 100 metres before turning to the north and running in this direction for a further 100 metres. The section to the north west of the town measures 105 metres in length and is aligned north to south but curves to the east at its northern end. This section of the monument is more clearly defined with the bank sloping down steeply to the west and north. A mill stream now occupies this section of the town ditch. The town was totally enclosed within the earthwork defences but elsewhere these have been levelled, infilled and encroached on by later development. Nevertheless, the original line of the town defences can still be traced from the surviving remains on the north west side to those on the south east side of the town. The mill stream marks the line of the ditch on the northern side of the town and the curve in Mill Lane follows the line around the north east corner. Scheduled. (1)

The earliest mention of this Town Ditch is in an eighteenth century
account by Bray: 'An intrenchment, which begins at the lower end of
the valley, called the Cave, inclosed the town, ending at the great
cavern, and forming a semi-circle; this is now called the Town
Ditch,
.......' According to Rev J. C. Cox almost the whole course of the
fosse and vallum could be traced in 1905. (2)

Earthwork surveyed at 1:2500. (3)

Castleton. SK 150830. On the east and south of the town there are
the remains of the Town Ditch but on the west and north this function
was performed by the Mill Race. (4)

Castleton. Traces of a ditch on the south and east sides of the town
may be connected with the foundation of the borough in 1196. There
is no documentary evidence. (5)

Scheduled. (6)

The earthwork remains of the medieval town defences of Castleton are visible on air photographs, centred at SK 1506 8288. The bank and ditch features described above by auth (1) to the south-east and north-west of the town were mapped as part of the Derbyshire and Peak District Aggregates Assessment Survey and appear to be extant on the latest EARTH.GOOGLE.COM photography (accessed 08-OCT-2009).
(7-8)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 1:10 000 1976
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Source Number : 2
Source : The Victoria history of the county of Derby, volume one
Source details :
Page(s) : 379-80
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Source Number : 3
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 BHS 15-SEP-65
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Source Number : 4
Source : New towns of the Middle Ages : town plantation in England, Wales and Gascony
Source details :
Page(s) : 416-7
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Source Number : 5
Source : Town defences in England and Wales: an architectural and documentary study AD 900-1500
Source details :
Page(s) : 118
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Source Number : 6
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 15-Feb-99
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Source Number : 7
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR RAF/58/4983 F21 4010 13-MAR-1962
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Source Number : 8
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR RAF/58/4983 F21 0410 13-MAR-1962
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Medieval (From 1196)
Monument End Date : 1540
Monument Start Date : 1196
Monument Type : Town Defences
Evidence : Earthwork

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 29937
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Derbyshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 3324
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SK 18 SE 29
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SK 18 NW 14
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1965-09-15
End Date : 1965-09-15
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE:DERBYSHIRE AND PEAK DISTRICT AGGREGATES ASSESSMENT NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2009-05-05
End Date : 2010-06-15