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Historic England Research Records

Maiden Way

Hob Uid: 1030997
Location :
Cumbria
Carlisle
Bewcastle, Askerton, Waterhead, Kingwater
Grid Ref : NY6150066300
Summary : Roman road RR 865. Birdoswald - Bewcastle. (6 miles). A direct road following a single alignment for practically the whole distance is still visible over much of its course and in some places is very well preserved. No trace has been found for the first half mile from Birdoswald (NY 66 NW 14), across the shallow valley of Midgeholm Moss, but directly after crossing the modern road to Gilsland the agger appears, which in the north-west corner of the meadow that it crosses, stands 30 feet wide and 1 foot high. It is over 2 feet high just beyond, where it passes diagonally under a field wall, and continues over Waterhead Common with a wall on its left side. The road crosses King Water at Slittery Ford and the terrace ascending the opposite bank is clearly visible leading in an upstream direction for one hundred yards, after which the previous direction is resumed. It continues past Highstead Ash, where the construction of the road was examined, 16-17 feet wide, edged with squared kerbstones and built up on a packed layer of large and small pieces of freestone and cobbles, resting on the subsoil. The road is then traceable across the moor and fields to Spadeadam passing a few yards east of the farm and running diagonally through two former plantations, where the agger, 30 feet wide and 1-2 feet high appears. It continues direct to the highest ground passing right of the Roman signal station on Gillalees Beacon (NY 57 SE 8) and eventually to High House on the ridge overlooking Bewcastle. Here a zigzag eased the descent, and then a short alignment more to the north carried it through fields, where the agger is faintly visible. Near the valley bottom a turn north-west was made to take it straight to the fort at Bewcastle (NY 57 SE 15). A section of the road 6.58km long is scheduled.
More information : RR 865 Roman Road. Birdoswald - Bewcastle (6 miles).
A direct road following a single alignment for practically the whole distance is still visible over much of its course and in some places is very well preserved. No trace has been found for the first half mile from Birdoswald (NY 66 NW 14), across the shallow valley of Midgeholm Moss, but directly after crossing the modern road to Gilsland the agger appears, which in the north-west corner of the meadow that it crosses, stands 30 feet wide and 1 foot high. It is over 2 feet high just beyond, where it passes diagonally under a field wall, and continues over Waterhead Common with a wall on its left side. The road crosses King Water at Slittery Ford and the terrace ascending the opposite bank is clearly visible leading in an upstream direction for one hundred yards, after which the previous direction is resumed. It continues past Highstead Ash, where the construction of the road was examined, 16-17 feet wide, edged with squared kerbstones and built up on a packed layer of large and small pieces of freestone and cobbles, resting on the subsoil. The road is then traceable across the moor and fields to Spadeadam passing a few yards east of the farm and running diagonally through two former plantations, where the agger, 30 feet wide and 1-2 feet high appears. It continues direct to the highest ground passing right of the Roman signal station on Gillalees Beacon (NY 57 SE 8) and eventually to High House on the ridge overlooking Bewcastle. Here a zigzag eased the descent, and then a short alignment more to the north carried it through fields, where the agger is faintly visible. Near the valley bottom a turn north-west was made to take it straight to the fort at Bewcastle (NY 57 SE 15). (1)

See Linear Archive File for further details. (2)

The earthwork remains of approximately 480m of this Roman road could be seen as a slight bank to the south of Waterhead Plantation between NY 6100 6706 and NY 6072 6745. This was mapped from historical aerial photographs as part of the English Heritage: Hadrian's Wall NMP project (4)

Located on the English Heritage map of Hadrian's Wall 2010. (5)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Roman roads in Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 450-1
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 1a
Source : The Archaeological Journal
Source details : Rev J Maughan
Page(s) : 1, 124, 217, 345
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 11
Source Number : 1b
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : Haverfield F
Page(s) : 420
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 14
Source Number : 1c
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : Collingwood R G
Page(s) : 169
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 22, 1922
Source Number : 1d
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : Collingwood W G
Page(s) : 110
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 24, 1924
Source Number : 1e
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Cumberland Excavation Report
Page(s) : 195
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 38, 1938
Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Ordnance Survey Linear Archive File RR 865 in NMRC
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 18-Sep-98
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : RAF 106G/UK/1392 3298 10-APR-1946
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : An Archaeological Map of Hadrian's Wall, 1:25,000 scale
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Road
Evidence : Earthwork, Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Roman Road Number
External Cross Reference Number : RR 865
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CU 11
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 27815
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : LINEAR 292
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 13013
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 1010543
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 13993
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 12986
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1474393
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 14026
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, SPADEADAM FARM, MAIDEN WAY
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1895-01-01
End Date : 1895-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, MAIDEN WAY, NORTH OF BEWCASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1896-01-01
End Date : 1896-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: HADRIAN'S WALL WHS MAPPING PROJECT, NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31