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Historic England Research Records

Lindum Colonia

Hob Uid: 326486
Location :
Lincolnshire
Lincoln
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : SK9751671680
Summary : The site of the Roman colony at Lincoln; located on site of the legionary fortress when it was left in the late 1st century AD; the Severan walls followed the line of the fortress's defences. Developed into a thriving town. The Legio II Adiutrix probably left Lincoln in 77, and shortly afterwards the Colonia ws founded, primarily for soldiers of the 9th Legion. The original timber defences of the legionary fortress were removed and replaced in stone, and the enclosed area extended southwards to the River Witham. This, the 'lower town' may have originally been the fort's canabae, although limited excavation has found little evidence of structures dating to the pre-Colonia occupation period. Excavations have located the forum, a possible temple associated with the forum, and public baths, the Roman waterfront, and several minor buildings. Excavations at St Paul-in-the Baile have found church-like buildings dating to the end of Roman rule or the early sub-Roman period, and a forerunner to an excavated church on the same site of Saxon date. Almost all of the sites occupied in the 3rd century were still occupied in the 4th century, but this had reduced by half by the end of the 4th century. This is a reduction in both scale and quality. As is the case in other late Roman cities, there are deposits of late 4th century Dark Earth, and the colonia was not reoccupied by the early Saxons. The discovery of the early church may indicate the establishment of a See, and it is possible that in the sub-Roman period, Lincoln became an ecclesiatical centre after being largely abandoned by its inhabitants. The walls and gates were partly incorporated into the Mediaeval defences.
More information : [Name centred:SK 9912 7161] Lindum Colonia [G.S.] (1)

[Area centred SK 9758 7168] The Roman legionary fortress at Lincoln
covered an area of 41 1/2 acres, the military ocupation lasting
from c.47-48 A.D. to 71-77 AD. The timber defences served the
subsequent colonia for about a century until the stone wall was
built, almost certainly by Severus. The area enclosed by the wall is
exactly that of the fortress.
The early 3rd century date previously assigned to the wall of the
extended colonia is now thought to be too early. The exact date is
not known.(2) (3) (4)
LINDUM (7) LINDUM COLONIA, scheduled (5). (2-7)

The extant remains of Roman Lincoln comprise:
1. Upper Colonia
(a) The newport arch, the North Gate (qv. SK 97 SE)
(b) The fosse at the N.E. angle from SK 9771 7212
- SK 9786 7196 including two fragments of walling at SK 9775 7211 and
SK 9785 7199 respectively.

2. Lower Colonia
(c) A stretch of walling centred at SK 9783 7165
(d) The fosse E. of the Art Gallery at SK 9783 7158

Name 'LINDVM' accepted for 4th. edition R.B.Map. (8)

The original Roman name may have been Colonia [Domitiana] Lindensium.
History of the development of the colony. (9)

Bailgate; Roman well and part of the forum wall. 1st century with
16th century alterations. Excavated and consolidated in 1980.
Grade 1. (10)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : O.S. 6" 1956
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Archaeol J 103 1946 pp25-6 Illust (I.A. Richmond)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : J Roman Studies 49 1959 pp109-111
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Archaeol J 117 1962 pp40-70 Illust (D.F. Petch)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Ancient Monuments England and Wales 1961 p64 (M.O.W.)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Hill J W E 1948 Medieval Lincoln pp8-9, 82, 157-8, 160 plan 5
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : O.S. Map of Roman Britain 1956
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 AC 18-JUL-62
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : The towns of Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 120-137
Figs. : 29-31
Plates : 19-22
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : DOE Listed Buildings City of Lincoln Lincs 8 July 1991 p6
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Circa 80-410
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 80
Monument Type : Colonia, Town
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit, Structure

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : LI 115
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SK 97 SE 7
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1032108
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 1031689
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 1031813
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 1034549
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1406862
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 326541
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1407014
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1407099
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, BAILGATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1882-01-01
End Date : 1882-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BAILGATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1887-01-01
End Date : 1887-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CATHEDRAL LIBRARY (NOW CATHEDRAL COFFEE SHOP)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1890-01-01
End Date : 1890-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BAILGATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1891-01-01
End Date : 1891-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CECIL STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1906-01-01
End Date : 1906-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WESTGATE SCHOOL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1938-01-01
End Date : 1947-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NORTH ROW
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1946-01-01
End Date : 1946-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, EAST BIGHT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1953-01-01
End Date : 1953-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SUB DEANERY/OLD BISHOP'S PALACE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1955-01-01
End Date : 1958-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, COTTESFORD PLACE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1957-01-01
End Date : 1958-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NEWPORT ARCH
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1959-01-01
End Date : 1959-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FREE SCHOOL LANE (SITE OF FORMER CO-OP STORE)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1961-01-01
End Date : 1961-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, MIDLAND BANK, 19 BAILGATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1962-01-01
End Date : 1963-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SK 97 SE 7
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1962-07-18
End Date : 1962-07-18
Associated Activities : Primary, EAST BIGHT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1964-01-01
End Date : 1966-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BAILGATE METHODIST CHURCH
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1967-01-01
End Date : 1968-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SPRING HILL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1968-01-01
End Date : 1969-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 40-42 THE PARK
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1968-01-01
End Date : 1968-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FLAXENGATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1969-01-01
End Date : 1969-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, EAST BIGHT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1970-01-01
End Date : 1979-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FLAXENGATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1972-01-01
End Date : 1976-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 52 BAILGATE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1972-01-01
End Date : 1972-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SILVER STREET/BROADGATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1973-01-01
End Date : 1973-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WESTGATE SCHOOL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1973-01-01
End Date : 1973-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 4-7 STEEP HILL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1974-01-01
End Date : 1975-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, DANES TERRACE I & II
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1974-01-01
End Date : 1974-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WESTGATE/WEST BIGHT
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1976-01-01
End Date : 1976-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE SQUARE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1979-01-01
End Date : 1979-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NORTH DISTRICT SCHOOL (MINT WALL)
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1980-01-01
End Date : 1980-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NEWPORT/BAILGATE/WESTGATE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1980-01-01
End Date : 1980-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WEST BIGHT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1980-01-01
End Date : 1980-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SPRING HILL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1982-01-01
End Date : 1982-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LINCOLN CATHEDRAL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1984-01-01
End Date : 1985-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HUNGATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1985-01-01
End Date : 1986-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CHAPEL LANE (CORPORATION DEPOT)
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1985-01-01
End Date : 1985-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, STEEP HILL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1985-01-01
End Date : 1985-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WEST GATE, LINCOLN CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1986-01-01
End Date : 1989-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, STEEP HILL
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1987-01-01
End Date : 1987-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CUTHBERTS YARD, BURTON ROAD
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, TOWER GARAGE, WESTGATE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WESTGATE SCHOOL
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BISHOP'S OLD PALACE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 17 EAST BIGHT
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BAILGATE AREA WATERMAINS REPLACEMENT
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SITE OF FORMER ST CUTHBERTS NURSERY SCHOOL, MICHAELGATE
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ST MARK'S STATION
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BISHOP GROSSETESTE COLLEGE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NEWPORT ARCH
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, RASEN LANE/BAILGATE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 274-277 HIGH STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT ST MICHAEL'S TERRACE, MICHAELGATE (PLOTS 1-2)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WESTGATE PRIMARY SCHOOL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2004-01-01
End Date : 2004-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT 'STRELIZIA', MICHAELGATE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CUTHBERT'S YARD, BURTON ROAD
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT 'STRELIZIA', MICHAELGATE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LOWER LONG LEYS ROAD
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, TOWER HOTEL, 38 WESTGATE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND OFF 9-11 MONSON STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FORMER ARMY CADET FORCE HQ, NEWPORT
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE OLD PALACE, MINSTER YARD
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND OFF LONG LEYS ROAD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT LINCOLN COLLEGE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HSBC BANK, 221 HIGH STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT 59 STEEP HILL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT 37 CECIL STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2013-01-01
End Date : 2013-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NEWPORT GUEST HOUSE, 26-28 NEWPORT
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2014-01-01
End Date : 2014-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT 25A DRURY LANE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31