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Lincoln Cathedral

Hob Uid: 326631
Location :
Lincolnshire
Lincoln
Lincoln
Grid Ref : SK9779771821
Summary : Lincoln Cathedral is an amalgamation of different architectural styles and features that have developed through centuries of alterations, rebuilding and restorations. The first cathedral, built by Bishop Remigius between 1072-1092, was Norman in style, based on a Latin Cross plan. However a fire in 1141 and an earthquake in 1185 led to major reconstructions of the cathedral. The nave was built during the first half of the 13th century in the Early English Gothic style incorporating the remains of the Norman west end into this new Gothic front. The collapse of the central tower in the 1230s required another programme of rebuilding of the cathedral's east end and the chapels were remodelled and Angel Choir was built in 1255. The cloister was added in the late 13th century and in the 14th century the central tower was erected (1307-11). This was topped with a lead-covered spire and at the same time the choir screen was added. Circa 1380 the western towers were heightened and in the 15th century the chantry chapels were constructed in the Perpendicular style. The cathedral continued to be altered and added to in the 17th and 18th centuries including the library designed by Wren in 1674. Since the late 20th century the cathedral has been the subject of continuous campaigns of restoration and maintenance. Lincoln Cathedral towers over the historical city of Lincoln and is a fine example of the evolution of cathedral architecture through the centuries. The cathedral mostly dates to the 13th century and is predominantly Gothic in style, however it still preserves part of the west front of the earlier 11th century Romanesque cathedral. Its internal structure and furnishings have also been altered and changed through the years and a number of important architectural features are preserved including the 14th century misericords, the library (1674) built by Wren and frescoes by the artist Duncan Grant.
More information : [SK 9780 7182] St. Mary's Cathedral [TU]. (1)

The cathedral church, which replaced the earlier St. Mary's (the "Old Minster) [see SK 97 SE] on the transfer of the See from Dorchester c. 1075, was completed in 1082. It was built by Bishop Remi, and closely resembled the Conqueror's own church
of St. Etienne, at Caen.

The Norman building collapsed in 1185, and rebuilding was begun in 1192 by St. Hugh of Lincoln. The Great transept is c. 1205, the nave, completed about 1250, incorporates the altered original west front of the Norman minster. The central tower was rebuilt in 1307-11, the new presbytery called the Angel Choir, about 1255, and the Chapter house probably 1220 to 1235. Three sides of the cloister are late 13th century. The north side with library above, was built from Wren's designs, in 1674. (2-5)

In normal use. (6)

Lincoln Cathedral church was established c1072-1092 by Bishop Remigius. It was restored and extended following a fire between 1123-1148, for Bishop Alexander. It was then remodelled c1180-1200 by Richard the Mason and Geoffrey de Noiers for St Hugh of Avalon. The transepts were extended c1230-1235 by Michael "magister operis". The crossing tower was rebuilt c1240 by master mason Alexander, and then later heightened 1307-1311 by Richard of Stow. The Angel Choir was added 1256-1280, probably by Simon de Tresk. The cloisters date to c1290-1300, the chapter house C13, the song school to early C13, the Galilee porch to mid C13, the Cantelupe Chantry to 1355, the Fleming chantry (by John Porter) to 1431, the Russell chantry to 1494, the Langland chantry (by William Kitchin) to c1547, the Old Library to c1422 the Honywood Library (by Sir Christopher Wren) to 1674. The rooms under the west towers were built c1730 by James Gibbs and the Dean Wickham Library between 1909-1914 by Hodgson Fowler. Major restorations were carried out by James Gibbs, 1725, James Essex, 1761, J C Buckler, mid C19, J L Pearson, 1870-1893, Sir Charles Nicholson and Sir Francis Fox, 1921. The spires were removed from the towers in 1807.
Lincoln Cathedral is a mixture of various architectural styles including Romanesque, Early English, Perpendicular and Tudor Revival. It is based on a Latin Cross plan of nave with aisles and major and minor transepts.

For a full and very detailed description of the cathedral please refer to the Listed Buildings System. (7)

Lincoln Cathedral is an amalgamation of different architectural styles and features that have been developed through centuries of alterations, rebuilding and restorations. The first cathedral was Norman in style, based on a Latin Cross plan, built by Bishop Remigius circa 1072-1092.
The West Front of Lincoln Cathedral incorporates the surviving part of this early cathedral. Most of the Cathedral dates from the 13th century when it was rebuilt in the new gothic style. Later additions include the 14th century misericords, the Wren Library and the Duncan Grant frescoes.
In 1141 the Cathedral was damaged by fire and was rebuilt by Alexander 'the Magnificent' (Bishop of Lincoln, 1123-48).
An earthquake caused damage to the cathedral in 1185 and it was repaired by St Hugh (Bishop of Lincoln, 1186-1200) in 1192. It was rebuilt in the Gothic style with pointed arches, ribbed vaults and flying buttresses.

The central tower collapsed in 1237 or 1239 and a new tower was built and the chapels were remodelled. This Angel Choir was consecrated in 1280.

For a detailed and informative description of the cathedral please visit the official Lincoln Cathedral website. (8)

There is on piece of documentary evidence that reveals that the chapter had considered building a cloister in the period before the chapter-house was built. A document of the 1180s, probably from 1184-7, refers to a parcel of land being assigned to a canon named Samson with the proviso that the grant would be rescinded if the chapter required the land to build a cloister. The date of the document is imprecise, which is unforunate. Although it probably refers to the first half of the decade and relates to the romanesque building that was brought down in 1185, were it to date to after 1186, then the cloister was being considerd for the new building for Bishop Hugh, 1185-2000, planned soon after his appointment, in which case it would have been the work of the mason who built the early Gothic choir. The possibility of a cloister conceived by the master of the complex spatial intricacies, and structural bravado, of the choir, is a very intriguing one. (9)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 25" 1932
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : The Archaeological Journal
Source details : illus. plan (A.W. Clapham)
Page(s) : 102-3
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 103, 1947
Source Number : 3
Source : Medieval Lincoln
Source details : (1948 edition), iii, plan
Page(s) : 69
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : The Victoria history of the county of Lincoln, volume two
Source details : (Phyllis Wragge)
Page(s) : 80-96
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : Medieval religious houses : England and Wales
Source details :
Page(s) : 334
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 FRH 22-APR-63
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Lincoln, 08-OCT-1953
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1941
Source Number : 8
Source : World Wide Web page
Source details : Lincoln Cathedral. 2009. Building and History, [Accessed 07-AUG-2009]
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : Journal of the British Archaeological Association
Source details :
Page(s) : 222-48
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 159, 2006

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built 1075-1082
Monument End Date : 1092
Monument Start Date : 1072
Monument Type : Cathedral
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Damaged by fire 1141
Monument End Date : 1141
Monument Start Date : 1141
Monument Type : Cathedral
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : 21st Century
Display Date : Restored late 20thC - 21st C
Monument End Date : 2009
Monument Start Date : 1967
Monument Type : Cathedral
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Mostly collapsed 1185
Monument End Date : 1185
Monument Start Date : 1185
Monument Type : Cathedral
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Rebuilt 1192-1250
Monument End Date : 1255
Monument Start Date : 1192
Monument Type : Cathedral
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Late 13th century
Monument End Date : 1300
Monument Start Date : 1267
Monument Type : Cloister
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Tower built 1307-11
Monument End Date : 1311
Monument Start Date : 1307
Monument Type : Cathedral
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built 15thC
Monument End Date : 1500
Monument Start Date : 1401
Monument Type : Cathedral
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Alterations and additions 17th-18th C
Monument End Date : 1800
Monument Start Date : 1601
Monument Type : Cathedral
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Built 1674
Monument End Date : 1674
Monument Start Date : 1674
Monument Type : Library
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Late 20th Century
Display Date : Restored late 20th and 21st C
Monument End Date : 2009
Monument Start Date : 1967
Monument Type : Cathedral
Evidence : Extant Building

Components and Objects:
Period : Medieval
Component Monument Type : Cathedral
Object Type :
Object Material :
Period : Medieval
Component Monument Type : Cathedral
Object Type :
Object Material :

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 85114
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 486141
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : ViewFinder
External Cross Reference Number : NMR 17307/13
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : ViewFinder
External Cross Reference Number : CC98/00003
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : ViewFinder
External Cross Reference Number : AA080845
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : ViewFinder
External Cross Reference Number : CC98/00004
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : ViewFinder
External Cross Reference Number : BB49/02570
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1388680
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SK 97 SE 58
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : RCHME: STAINED GLASS RECORDING
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date :
End Date :
Associated Activities : CATHEDRAL LIBRARY (NOW CATHEDRAL COFFEE SHOP)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1890-01-01
End Date : 1890-12-31
Associated Activities : FIELD OBSERVATION ON SK 97 SE 58
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1963-04-22
End Date : 1963-04-22
Associated Activities : LINCOLN CATHEDRAL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1983-01-01
End Date : 1983-12-31
Associated Activities : CHAPTER HOUSE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1983-01-01
End Date : 1983-12-31
Associated Activities : LINCOLN CATHEDRAL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1984-01-01
End Date : 1985-12-31
Associated Activities : LINCOLN CATHEDRAL (CHAPEL EXCAVATION)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1986-01-01
End Date : 1986-12-31
Associated Activities : NETTLE YARD
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1987-01-01
End Date : 1987-12-31
Associated Activities : CATHEDRAL NORTH
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1989-12-31
Associated Activities : LINCOLN CATHEDRAL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : WEST FRONT, LINCOLN CATHEDRAL
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : BAILGATE AREA WATERMAINS REPLACEMENT
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : WEST FRONT FRIEZE, LINCOLN CATHEDRAL
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : CLOSE WALL, D'ISNEY PALACE HOTEL, EASTGATE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : CLOSE WALL, WEST TOWER, LINCOLN CATHEDRAL
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : 3-3A VICAR'S COURT, CATHEDRAL CLOSE
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : INVESTIGATION BY RCHME/EH ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1995-11-14
End Date : 1995-11-14
Associated Activities : THE CLOSE WALL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : LINCOLN CATHEDRAL ELECTRICITY SCHEME
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : LINCOLN CATHEDRAL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities : LINCOLN CATHEDRAL CABLE LINK
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : ENGLISH HERITAGE: DISABILITY IN TIME AND PLACE
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2012-12-31