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Historic England Research Records

Woodeaton Temple

Hob Uid: 338732
Location :
Oxfordshire
Cherwell
Islip
Grid Ref : SP5362012540
Summary : A Romano-British temple of two phases, dating from the 1st century AD, with traces of Iron Age occupation. Scheduled
More information : (SP 53631255) Romano-British Temple (R) (Site of) (NAT) (1)

North, Middle and South Hill fields have been known for nearly
300 years as a prolific source of Iron Age and Roman finds,
including many bronze objects, some thought to be votive.

Trial excavations were carried out by Oxford University
Archaeological Society in 1921(4) and 1934(5) but were rather
inconclusive. In 1952 excavations at SP 5363 1255 revealed
foundations of a Romano-Celtic temple of two periods. The earlier,
dated to the 1st century AD, consisted of a small cella 5.0m by
5.8m externally, with a clay floor, in the centre of which were
three superimposed hearths, apparently for ritual fires. In the
second period probably about mid 2nd century AD, the cella walls
were widened and a stone ambulatory added.

The precincts were enclosed by a temenos enclosure wall with
a gate in the east side, the area being about 45m square, see plan.

The site of the temple seems to have been on the fringes of the
Iron Age occupation area which was mainly on the SE edge of
Middle Hill and extended down the slope of the South Hill. There
are no signs of structures underlying the temple.

Iron Age pits were found close to the E wall of the temenos.

Occupation is apparently continuous from Iron Age 'A' to just
pre-Roman. Finds from the excavation include Iron Age pottery,
Romano British and samian wares, Roman coins, wall plaster and
small votive objects. An Iron Age tin coin came from the
Woodeaton site (6)(7), in the possession of P Manning. (2-7)

SP536 125. The Romano British temple site is at present under
plough. There are no visible structural features, the site being
indicated by a very strong surface concentration of abraded
pottery and building stone. (8)

(SP 536125). Numerous bronze letters used for votive inscriptions found at Woodeaton. Miniture spears from a possible Temple of mars at Woodeaton have been deliberately bent. Includes illustrations. (9)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1955
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Oxoniensia
Source details : (R Goodchild & J R Kirk)
Page(s) : 15-37
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 19-20, 1954-5
Source Number : 3
Source : The journal of Roman studies
Source details :
Page(s) : 109
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 21, 1931
Source Number : 4
Source : Antiquity
Source details :
Page(s) : 339-40
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1, 1927
Source Number : 5
Source : The Victoria history of the county of Oxford, Volume I
Source details :
Page(s) : 300
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1, 1939
Source Number : 6
Source : The Berks, Bucks and Oxon archaeological journal
Source details :
Page(s) : 43
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 4, 1898
Source Number : 7
Source : Problems of the Iron Age in southern Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 206
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 JWS 17-MAY-76
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : Religion in Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 147-150
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Iron Age
Display Date : Iron Age
Monument End Date : 43
Monument Start Date : -800
Monument Type : Pit
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit, Find
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Temple
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Period : Iron Age
Component Monument Type : Pit
Object Type : COIN
Object Material :

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Oxfordshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 2379
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : OX 107
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SP 51 SW 1
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, MIDDLE HILL FIELD, WOODEATON
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1920-01-01
End Date : 1921-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WOODEATON
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1934-01-01
End Date : 1934-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WOODEATON
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1952-01-01
End Date : 1952-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WOODEATON
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1965-01-01
End Date : 1966-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SP 51 SW 1
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1976-05-17
End Date : 1976-05-17
Associated Activities : Primary, WOODEATON
Activity type : SYSTEMATIC FIELDWALKING SURVEY
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT WOODEATON
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31