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Historic England Research Records

Buckingham

Hob Uid: 341189
Location :
Buckinghamshire
Buckingham
Grid Ref : SP6900033000
Summary : Early Mediaeval burh (Buckingahamme) founded 915 at Buckingham, with a mint prior to 999. Mediaeval and Post-Medieval Town. Mentioned in Domesday and described as a borough in 1227. It was created a free borough 1553-4, and after surrendering its charter to Charles II was reincorporated in 1684.
More information : C 914, "King Edward went to Buckingham with his army, and stayed there four weeks, and made both the boroughs, one on each side of the river."(1)

There is now no trace of the Burghs said to have been built
on each side of the river 914 AD.(2)

In 914 AD, Buckingham was fortified and garrisoned to control the Roman road system serving Northampton, Bedford, and the Ouse valley.(3)

A mint was established in Buckingham in the reign of Ethelred II prior to 999 AD.(4)

In Domesday Buckingham occupies a position as county town with a separate entry at the head of the survey. However its unsuitability of position at the extreme north of the county led to the rise of Aylesbury as an administrative centre. The earliest authentic mention of Buckingham occurs c915 AD when Edward the Elder fortified it against the Danes. The boundaries of the parish and borough appear to have been coterminous from a very early date, and are set forth in the Charter of 1553. Buckingham was not incorporated by Charter until the middle of the 16th century. In 1553-4 Buckingham was created a free borough under the name of the Bailiff and Burgesses of the parish of Buckingham. Under Charles II Buckingham in common with many other boroughs, was compelled to surrender its charter, receiving a fresh incorporation in 1684 under the title of Mayor and Alderman of the borough and parish of Buckingham.
The burgesses of Buckingham are mentioned twice in Domesday. Total burgage rents in the C15th varied from 60s to 70s. Buckingham had the right to hold markets and fairs within the borough, whose tolls until the 16th century belonged to the lord of the manor, and have since formed part of the corporation revenues. In 1327 one third of their value was said to be 13s 4d and 16s 2.5d is entered on the accounts of Buckingham manor in 1473. Under a Charter of 1554 the market was held on Tuesday, which changed to Saturday in 1684. In the charter incorporation of 1554 two fairs are mentioned. In the C17th there were four fellowships of Mercers, Cordwainers, Tailors and Butchers indicating a flourishing economy. (5)

914 Edward the Elder stayed four weeks at Buckingham
995 Charter of Ethelred II refers to 'my prepositus' in Buckingham
1086 Twenty-six burgesses. 'Bishop Remigius holds the church of this borough'
1227 Represented as a borough or vill by its own jury at the eyre (6)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Source details :
Page(s) : 64
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1961
Source Number : 2
Source : Town defences in England and Wales: an architectural and documentary study AD 900-1500
Source details :
Page(s) : 118
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1971
Source Number : 3
Source : Records of Buckinghamshire : journal of the Architectural and Archaeological Society for the County of Buckinghamshire
Source details : (Baines AH)
Page(s) : 153-64
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 27 - 1985
Source Number : 4
Source : An atlas of Anglo-Saxon England
Source details :
Page(s) : 128
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1981
Source Number : 5
Source : The Victoria history of the county of Buckingham: volume three
Source details :
Page(s) : 471-89
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1925
Source Number : 6
Source : English medieval boroughs: a handlist
Source details :
Page(s) : 70-1
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1973

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Early Medieval
Display Date :
Monument End Date :
Monument Start Date : 914
Monument Type : Burh
Evidence : Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Medieval
Monument End Date : 1540
Monument Start Date : 1066
Monument Type : Town
Evidence : Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Post Medieval
Monument End Date : 1901
Monument Start Date : 1540
Monument Type : Town
Evidence : Documentary Evidence

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SP 63 SE 19
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
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