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Historic England Research Records

Bannaventa Roman Settlement

Hob Uid: 341769
Location :
Northamptonshire
Daventry
Norton
Grid Ref : SP6110064600
Summary : The site of a Roman walled settlement on Watling Street. The settlement was initially protected by a ditch which was infilled and replaced by a wall in the 4th century. Within the walled area post hole founded buildings were discovered and in the extra mural area stockaded ditches, a hearth, post holes and a cobbled area.
More information : Name SP 611645 BANNAVENTA ROMAN SETTLEMENT (R) (site of) (NAT) (1)

(SP 611646) Bannaventa walled settlement situated on Watling Street (RR 1 f), located by air photography in 1970. (2)

A section cut across the north-west perimeter in 1970-71 showed the earliest defences to have been post 1st century consisting of a ditch 25 feet wide by 10 feet deep, apparently backed by a clay and turf rampart whose existence is inferred from material in the upper filling of the ditch. Probably early in the 4th century the ditch was filled and a stone wall some 12 feet thick built. This wall has been entirely robbed; all that remains being scraps of mortar in a
robber trench which has itself been partly destroyed by modern ploughing.

Beyond the wall lay two further ditches some 17 feet wide by 8 feet deep and 14 feet wide by 6 feet deep respectively, both apparently becoming disused in or after the late 4th century. The ditch nearest the town wall seems to have been filled intentionally with gravel, perhaps to enable the addition of bastions to the wall. The site had been much damaged by bulldozing, and ploughing, but investigations in the interior revealed a 1st century circular structure, a well over 24 feet deep which had been filled in late in the Roman period and large numbers of stake and post-holes indicative of buildings. One building had pink plaster imitating marble, but no traces of stone structures were found, and the dearth of items of personal adornment gives the impression of a relatively poor community with a continuity of occupation from pre-Roman times.

Finds include a pre-Tasciovanus British coin, Roman coins mainly of the 4th century, two brooches and a small amount of Samian ware.

Discoveries outside the defences included a hearth, occasional post-holes, a cobbled area and an extensive area of ditches interpreted as stockade ditches similar to examples found at Tripontium. A series of ditches extending in date from pre-Roman times to the 2nd century was also found within the walled area. (3,4)

For further details, see Map Diagram. (5)

".....there is also positive evidence of a stone wall, but this has almost all been removed by stone robbers. I am not sure if one could state that Bannaventa is a walled settlement or a Constantinian burgus....." (6)

Name 'BANNAVENTA' accepted for 4th edition RB Map. (7)

Bannaventa, SP 612645, mentioned in Atonine Itinerary. Identification of the site disputed until early 20th century.
Weedon Dec and Daventry suggested alternatives. Finds of Roman material noted in 1712, 1822-30, and 1853 confirmed the location. Further finds and observations of a building in 1900, 1st and 2nd coins and rubbish pits including Nene Valley type barbotine decorated beakers revealed by test excavation in 1955. [RCHM plan]. (8)

(SP 611645). Samian form 37 base with the stamp `TITVRONIS' found in 1979. (9)

Illustration of defences 19, 83-6, 89, 102. (10)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1971
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Source Number : 2
Source : Bulletin of the Northamptonshire Federation of Archaeological Societies
Source details :
Page(s) : 27-Sep
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : Jul-72
Source Number : 8c
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Baker G. 1822-34 The History and Antiquites of the County of Northampton I (423)
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8d
Source : Archaeologia : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details :
Page(s) : 391-2
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 35 - 1853
Source Number : 8e
Source : The Victoria history of the county of Northampton: volume one
Source details :
Page(s) : 186-7
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : Jan-02
Source Number : 8f
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Frere S.ed 1958 Problems of the Iron Age in Southern Britain (190)
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Source Number : 8g
Source : Antiquity
Source details :
Page(s) : 140-1
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Vol(s) : 45 - 1971
Source Number : 8h
Source : Bulletin of the Northamptonshire Federation of Archaeological Societies
Source details :
Page(s) : 16
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Vol(s) : Jun-71
Source Number : 8i
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Council for British Archaeology Group 9 Newsletter 2 1972 9
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 9
Source : Northamptonshire archaeology
Source details :
Page(s) : 167
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 15 - 1980
Source Number : 10
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Crickmore J 1984, Romno-British Urban Defences BAR 126
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Source Number : 10a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Rodwell and Rowley 1975, Small Towns of Roman Britain BAR 15 14
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Source Number : 3
Source : Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies
Source details :
Page(s) : 325
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Plates :
Vol(s) : Mar-72
Source Number :
Source : RCHME: Bannaventa Roman Town, Northamptonshire
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Source Number : 4
Source : Rugby School Natural History Society report
Source details :
Page(s) : 14-16
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 1971
Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Ordnance Survey archaeology field investigator BHS 21-FEB-69
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Source Number : 6
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Letter Graham Webster 15.4.75
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Source Number : 7
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Unpublished Ro Brit Map 14th Ed 1975
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : An inventory of the historical monuments in the County of Northampton. Volume III: archaeological sites in north-west Northamptonshire
Source details :
Page(s) : 150-2 -4
Figs. : 115
Plates :
Vol(s) : 111 - 1981
Source Number : 8a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Edgar W. 1923 Borough Hill and its History
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8b
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Morton J. 1712 The Natural History of Northamptonshire
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Iron Age
Display Date : Iron Age
Monument End Date : 43
Monument Start Date : -800
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Find
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Settlement, Town, Wall, Ditch, Post Hole, Building, Floor
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Period : Iron Age
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type : COIN
Object Material :

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : NN 152
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Northamptonshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 6164016
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Northamptonshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 6164019/23
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Northamptonshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 895/0/6
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Northamptonshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 895/0/0
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SP 66 SW 1
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : BANNAVENTA
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1955-01-01
End Date : 1955-12-31
Associated Activities : BANNAVENTA
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1956-01-01
End Date : 1956-12-31
Associated Activities : FIELD OBSERVATION ON SP 66 SW 1
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1969-02-21
End Date : 1969-02-21
Associated Activities : BANNAVENTA, WHILTON LODGE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1970-01-01
End Date : 1972-12-31
Associated Activities : BANNAVENTA
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1970-01-01
End Date : 1971-12-31
Associated Activities : WHILTON LODGE, BANNAVENTA
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1972-01-01
End Date : 1972-12-31
Associated Activities : BANNAVENTA
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1980-01-01
End Date : 1980-12-31
Associated Activities : NORTON CROSSROADS, A5
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1986-01-01
End Date : 1986-12-31
Associated Activities : BANNAVENTA, WHILTON LODGE
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 2006-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT BANNAVENTA
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 2012-01-01
End Date : 2013-12-31