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Historic England Research Records

Monument Number 359304

Hob Uid: 359304
Location :
Hertfordshire
Dacorum
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : TL0381005680
Summary : A Roman villa discovered during landscaping in the late 1840s in the garden of Boxmoor House excavated by J Evans in 1851, some of the finds are in the British Museum. Rescue excavations were carried out by Hemel Hempstead Excavation Society in 1966, 1969 and 1970. Five building periods were recognised: dates are tentative; Period 1, late 1st or early 2nd cent, timber building of winged corridor type with painted wall plaster. Period 2, mid-2nd cent, building of cob also winged corridor type, tessellated pavements. Period 3, late 2nd cent, apparently demolished and rebuilt dwarf masonry walls and cob, tessellated pavements. Period 4, 3rd cent, reduced in size - timber structure over east part of site: row of post holes across the building. Period 5, early 4th cent; phase A, rebuilding with further reduction in size; phase B, alterations, a hearth beneath period 1 may represent an earlier building and a coin of Arcadius (383-408 AD) may indicate "squatting" after period 5. An imperial lead seal dated late 3rd early 4th cent. suggests the estate was run by a bailiff. The site is now occupied by school playing fields.
More information : (TL 03810568) Roman Villa (R) (Site of) (NAT) (1)

A Roman villa discovered during landscaping in the late 1840s in the garden of Boxmoor House excavated by J Evans in 1851 (see fig A) some of the finds are in the British Museum. Rescue excavations were carried out by Hemel Hempstead Excavation Society in 1966, 1969 and 1970 (see plans which confirm siting in 1.). Five building periods were recognised: dates are tentative; Period 1, late 1st or early 2nd cent, timber building of winged corridor type with painted wall plaster. Period 2, mid-2nd cent, building of cob also winged corridor type, tessellated pavements. Period 3, late 2nd cent, apparently demolished and rebuilt dwarf masonry walls and cob, tessellated pavements. Period 4, 3rd cent, reduced in size - timber structure over east part of site: row of post holes across the building. Period 5, early 4th cent; phase A, rebuilding with further reduction in size; phase B, alterations, a hearth beneath period 1 may represent an earlier building and a coin of Arcadius (383-408 AD) may indicate "squatting" after period 5. An imperial lead seal dated late 3rd early 4th cent. suggests the estate was run by a bailiff. Excavations to continue. (2-4)

6th cent leaden coin brooch from the villa is in J Evans' collection and was exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries in 1853 (Ashmolean Museum?). (5)

The site of this villa is now occupied by school playing fields - there are no visible remains. (6)

Full excavation report (7). Boxmoor House Roman villa - scheduled. (7-8)

HT 32 Listed as the site of a Roman villa. (9)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 6" 1960
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies
Source details :
Page(s) : 270
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 2, 1971
Source Number : 3
Source : Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies
Source details : (D.S. Neal)
Page(s) : 156-62
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1, 1970
Source Number : 4
Source : The Victoria history of the county of Hertford, volume four
Source details :
Page(s) : 154
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London
Source details :
Page(s) : 211
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 19, 1902-3
Source Number : 6
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 FDC 02-SEP-75
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : Hertfordshire archaeology
Source details : (D S Neal)
Page(s) : 53-110
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 4, 1974-6
Source Number : 8
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : DOE (IAM) List Ancient Monuments 3 1978
Page(s) : 51
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : A gazetteer of Roman villas in Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 93
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : no.1
Source Number : 10
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 11-Jul-97
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Villa, Tessellated Floor
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Early Medieval
Display Date : Early Medieval
Monument End Date : 1066
Monument Start Date : 410
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Find

Components and Objects:
Period : Roman
Component Monument Type : Villa, Tessellated Floor
Object Type : WALL PLASTER
Object Material :
Period : Early Medieval
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type : BROOCH
Object Material :

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : HT 57
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Hertfordshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 72
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 27916
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : TL 00 NW 3
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, BOXMOOR HOUSE ROMAN VILLA
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1852-01-01
End Date : 1852-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BOXMOOR HOUSE ROMAN VILLA
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1966-01-01
End Date : 1966-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BOXMOOR HOUSE SCHOOL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1969-01-01
End Date : 1970-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON TL 00 NW 3
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1975-09-02
End Date : 1975-09-02
Associated Activities : Primary, BOXMOOR
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1977-01-01
End Date : 1977-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BOXMOOR HOUSE SCHOOL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31