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Historic England Research Records

Amesbury 44 (Goddard)

Hob Uid: 942696
Location :
Wiltshire
Amesbury
Grid Ref : SU1197542785
Summary : A Bronze Age twin bell barrow, known as Amesbury 44, survives as earthworks and forms part of the Cursus barrow cemetery (Monument Number 219681). It comprises two barrow mounds which are completely surrounded by a single ring ditch. The barrows measure an overall length of 42m and width of 34m. The larger, westernmost mound stands 2.3m high and the lower, eastern, mound stands 1.6m high. Both mounds were dug into by Stukeley in 1723 for Lord Pembroke, and the western mound was re-excavated by Cunnington in 1803 (Barrow 29). The western mound contained a primary cremation with six horn beads, plus an intrusive inhumation 14 inches below the surface of the mound. The smaller eastern mound contained a cremation in an urn, accompanied by a javelin or spear -head, a pin and numerous beads. The barrow was listed as Amesbury 44 by Goddard (as a twin barrow) and by Grinsell (as a twin bell barrow). In 1913 Maud Cunnington noted it was in good condition having never been ploughed. The barrow was surveyed by English Heritage in April 2009 as part of the Stonehenge WHS Landscape Project.
More information : `B' - SU 11974278; Amesbury 44, a twin bell barrow, overall measurements 158ft W-E, 120ft N-S. Colt Hoare's Barrow 29, excavated by both W. Cunnington and Stukeley. Cunnington found a primary cremation with six horn beads within the west mound, Stukeley had previously located an intrusive male inhumation (? extended) just below the surface. ?RB or Saxon. Within the east mound Stukeley found a cremation in a MBA urn of enlarged food vessel type with a flat dagger, an awl, a gold mounted amber disc, faience and amber beads, space-plates, an amber stud, beads probably of shale and of `yellow glass' (?calcite). (1-2)

Amesbury 44; a twin bell barrow 42m N-S and 32m E-W. The mounds are 1.8m amd 2.8m high; the ditch is 0.6m deep with a very slight berm. (3)

Originally recorded as Amesbury 44 by Goddard. With a note by Maud Cunnington: condition good, 1913, never ploughed. (4)

The barrow is visible as an earthwork on aerial photographs, and has been mapped by both RCHME's Salisbury Plain Training Area NMP and EH's Stonehenge WHS Mapping Project. (7-9)

The Bronze Age twin bell barrow referred to above (1-9) was surveyed at 1:1000 scale by English Heritage in April 2009 as part of the Stonehenge WHS Landscape Project. It comprises two barrow mounds which are completely surrounded by a single ring ditch. The barrows measure an overall length of 42m and width of 34m. The larger, westernmost mound stands 2.3m high: its top measures 6m and its base is 17m in diameter. The lower, eastern, mound stands 1.6m high: its top measures 6m and its base is 11m in diameter. The ring ditch measures c 7m wide and 0.4m deep and encloses an area measuring 31m east to west by a maximum of 20m wide. The analytical survey suggests several phases of construction: the larger western barrow mound was constructed on a plinth, then the smaller eastern barrow mound added and the ditch perhaps re-dug around both mounds. Hollows probably representing the early excavation trenches are located on top of each mound. (10-11)

In 1723 Stukeley dug into both mounds. In the smaller eastern barrow he found an urn containing small and very friable pieces of cremated bone. He attributed these to a girl aged about 13 years old. Associated finds included a variety of beads of different shapes, sizes and materials, a sharp bodkin and a spear or javelin -head. In the western barrow he found the skeleton of a young male aligned with the head to the north and the feet towards Stonehenge, rather than directly south. The burial was just 14 inches below the surface. (12)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : A history of Wiltshire: volume 1, part 1
Source details : L Grinsell: Archaeological Gazetteer
Page(s) : 213
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Source Number : 2
Source : The ancient history of Wiltshire
Source details :
Page(s) : 161
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 11
Source : Research Department Report Series
Source details : Amadio, L & Bishop, S 'The Cursus Barrows and surrounding area.' Stonehenge WHS Landscape Project. Archaeological Survey Report. RDRS 85/2010. Swindon: English Heritage.
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Vol(s) : 85-2010
Source Number : 12
Source : Stukeley's Stonehenge: an unpublished manuscript 1721-1724
Source details :
Page(s) : 100
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Source Number : 3
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 11-APR-69
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Source Number : 4
Source : The Wiltshire archaeological and natural history magazine
Source details : EH Goddard: A list of prehistoric, Roman and pagan Saxon antiquities in the county of Wiltshire...
Page(s) : 168
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 38, 1913-14
Source Number : 5
Source : Archaeological assessment of the Stonehenge World Heritage Site and its surrounding landscape
Source details : Record number 579
Page(s) : 195
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Source Number : 6
Source : A gazetteer of early Anglo-Saxon burial sites
Source details :
Page(s) : 264
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Source Number : 7
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : USAAF US/7PH/GP/LOC122 1050-1052 24-DEC-1943
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Source Number : 8
Source : Oblique aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR SU 1242/127 (WAP 11820/27306) XX-XXX-1977
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Source Number : 9
Source : Oblique aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR SU 1142/64 (15197/23) 03-JAN-1995
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Source Number : 10
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : Sharon Bishop/28-MAY-2010/English Heritage: Stonehenge WHS Landscape Project
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Bronze Age
Display Date : Bronze Age
Monument End Date : -700
Monument Start Date : -2600
Monument Type : Bell Barrow, Round Barrow
Evidence : Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Possibly Roman
Monument End Date :
Monument Start Date :
Monument Type : Extended Inhumation, Inhumation
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Early Medieval
Display Date : Possibly Saxon
Monument End Date :
Monument Start Date :
Monument Type : Extended Inhumation, Inhumation
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Period : Bronze Age
Component Monument Type : Bell Barrow, Round Barrow
Object Type : BEAD, DISC, CREMATION, VESSEL, KNIFE, DAGGER, AWL
Object Material : Amber, Shale, Gold, Bone, Pottery, Bronze

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Wiltshire)
External Cross Reference Number : SU14SW579
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SU 14 SW 426
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 219815
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 942709
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 942712
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 942705
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 942691
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 942703
Relationship type : Is referred to by

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: SALISBURY PLAIN TRAINING AREA NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 1994-12-01
End Date : 1995-08-01
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: STONEHENGE WHS MAPPING PROJECT NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2001-02-01
End Date : 2001-07-01
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: STONEHENGE WHS LANDSCAPE PROJECT
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2013-12-31