HeritageGateway - Home
Site Map
Text size: A A A
You are here: Home > > > > Historic England research records Result
Historic England research recordsPrintable version | About Historic England research records

Historic England Research Records

Caesaromagus

Hob Uid: 378248
Location :
Essex
Chelmsford
Chelmsford
Grid Ref : TL7089906189
Summary : Excavations at CAESAROMAGUS (Chelmsford) in the Moulsham district south of the Rivers Chelmer and Can have established a Romano-British settlement of about 8 hectares (20 acres), developed from circa 60-65 AD, occupying the frontages of two main roads. A late 2nd century defensive ditch, 4 metres deep, and a rampart, which possibly enclosed the greater part of the town, was backfilled within a few years of its construction. Within the settlement area was a 4th century octagonal Roman-Gallic temple.A courtyard building physically separate from the settlement, is thought to have been a mansio. The original late 1st century timber structure was replaced in the mid 2nd century by stone, and measured circa 66 metres square overall. Excavations revealed four phases of military occupation circa AD 60-100 and two 4th century pottery kilns opening from a single stoke hole were found. Evidence for an earlier kiln is supplied by late Flavian kiln wasters found in a shallow excavation, presumably dug for brick earth extraction. Pits containing ash, charcoal, bronze and iron slag and scrap iron, together with domestic rubbish, indicate an iron and bronze working industry from late 1st to the 4th century were also identified. The only burials found on the periphery of the settlement were cremations
More information : Excavations at CAESAROMAGVS (Chelmsford) in the Moulsham district south of the Rivers Chelmer and Can (Area TL 709062) have established a Romano-British settlement of about 8 hectares (20 acres), developed from circa 60-65 AD, occupying the frontages of two main roads (2) (8) (see plans). A late 2nd century defensive ditch; 4m deep, and a rampart, which possibly enclosed the greater part of the town, was back filled within a few years of its construction. The filling contained much burnt structural debris (5).

Within the settlement area (TL 708063) a 4th century octagonal
Roman-Gallic temple (Lewis's type 1b), 55ft overall with a cella 35ft overall was found on the site of a 1st century temenos (4,7).

A courtyard building at TL 709062, and physically separate from the settlement, is thought to have been a mansio. The original late 1st century timber structure being replaced in the mid 2nd century by a stone one, circa 66m square overall (1).

Excavations revealed four phases of military occupation circa AD 60-100 (10): A ditch 1.0m deep, part of a temporary work, contained Samian dated circa 60/65 AD; Above it were timber buildings with gravel floors, whether they were internal or external buildings is not known; A turf rampart 4.5m wide with a ditch 2.0m wide, the north-west defences of a fort; and the subsequent timber revetment of the rampart and reconstruction of the north-west gate (9). Other military finds were a bronze chape and a bronze terminal from a military apron strap (1).

At TL 707062 two 4th century pottery kilns opening from a single stoke hole were found. The pottery was mainly coarse ware but included one decorated jar (6). (TL 70 NW 61).
Evidence for an earlier kiln is supplied by late Flavian kiln wasters found in a shallow excavation, presumably dug for brick earth extraction (4). Pits containing ash, charcoal, bronze and iron slag and scrap iron, together with domestic rubbish, indicate an iron and bronze working industry from late 1st to the 4th century (3).
The only burials found on the periphery of the settlement were
cremations.
(Name Caesaromagus adopted for 4th Edn. Roman Britain Map). (1-11)

Interim excavation plan 1976, superimposed on OS 1:1250. (12)

Military equipment, "military-style" ditches and pre-Flavian
sigilatta recovered by excavation have been taken collectively to represent a military establishment lasting from the Conquest until
c.80AD. Recent work on the pottery has indicated, however, that occupation did not begin until after the Boudiccan revolt (Drury, pers. comm.) and military equipment must surely be related to some later military episode. The place-name Caesaromagus, though an honorific title, does not have to be an official foundation and on the excavated evidence does not commemorate Claudius. Eddy and Turner feel that the evidence for a fort at Chelmsford is both equivocal and, if accepted, post-Boudiccan. Caesaromagus identified with the Roman town at Chelmsford. (13,14)

Additional references. (15-19)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Current Archaeol 41 1973 pp166-175
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Trans Essex Archaeol Soc 4 1972 pp3-29 (P J Drury)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 11
Source : The "small towns" of Roman Britain : papers presented to a conference, Oxford 1975
Source details :
Page(s) : 159-73
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 15
Source Number : 12
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 PAS 12-MAY-76
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 12a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Chelmsford Excav Comm (P Drury)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 13
Source : Kelvedon : the origins and development of a Roman small town
Source details :
Page(s) : 22-May
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 14
Source : The place-names of Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 287-8
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 15
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Britannia 15 1984 p69 (S.S Frere)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 16
Source : The mansio and other sites in the south-eastern sector of Caesaromagus : the Roman pottery
Source details :
Page(s) : 1-123
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 62
Source Number : 17
Source : Historic towns in Essex : an archaeological survey of [24] Saxon and medieval towns, with guidance for their future planning
Source details :
Page(s) : 32-9
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 4
Source Number : 18
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : CBA Recent Research in English Towns 1981 pp17-18
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 19
Source : Romano-British urban defences
Source details :
Page(s) : 145
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 126
Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Trans Essex Archaeol Soc 2 1966-70 p334 (P J Drury)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Archaeol Excavations 1970 pp58-9 (P J Drury)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Archaeol Excavations 1972 pp47-8 (P J Drury)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Archaeol Excavations 1973 pp41-2 (P J Drury)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Britannia 2 1971 p271
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Britannia 3 1972 p331 plan
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Britannia 4 1973 pp301-2
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : CBA Calendar of Excavations 1972 p8
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Mesolithic
Display Date : Mesolithic
Monument End Date : -4000
Monument Start Date : -10000
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Stratified Find
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 400
Monument Start Date : 60
Monument Type : Town, Town Defences, Fort, Civitas Capital
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Period : Mesolithic
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type : LITHIC IMPLEMENT
Object Material :

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Essex)
External Cross Reference Number : TL 70-1
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : TL 70 NW 21
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 879196
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 879322
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 879365
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 378237
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 378240
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : FRIARS PLACE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1960-01-01
End Date : 1969-12-31
Associated Activities : PRINCE OF ORANGE, HALL STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1961-01-01
End Date : 1961-12-31
Associated Activities : 17 ROMAN ROAD [SITE 1]
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1961-01-01
End Date : 1961-12-31
Associated Activities : 6 ROMAN ROAD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1964-01-01
End Date : 1964-12-31
Associated Activities : ST JOHN'S GARAGE, MOULSHAM STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1964-01-01
End Date : 1964-12-31
Associated Activities : MALTINGS, MILDMAY ROAD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1966-01-01
End Date : 1966-12-31
Associated Activities : DOVEDALES COLLEGE, MOULSHAM STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1966-01-01
End Date : 1966-12-31
Associated Activities : 42 ROMAN ROAD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1968-01-01
End Date : 1968-12-31
Associated Activities : 76 MILDMAY ROAD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1968-01-01
End Date : 1968-12-31
Associated Activities : CABLES YARD, HALL STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1968-01-01
End Date : 1969-12-31
Associated Activities : 181-182 MOULSHAM STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1968-01-01
End Date : 1968-12-31
Associated Activities : NEW WRITTLE STREET (GPO CABLE TRENCH)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1968-01-01
End Date : 1968-12-31
Associated Activities : 1-4 THE CHASE, BADDOW ROAD (SITE M)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1970-01-01
End Date : 1970-12-31
Associated Activities : THE CHASE, BADDOW ROAD (SITE L)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1970-01-01
End Date : 1971-12-31
Associated Activities : 29-31 ROCHFORD ROAD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1970-01-01
End Date : 1970-12-31
Associated Activities : ROCHFORD ROAD (SITE CH P)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1970-01-01
End Date : 1970-12-31
Associated Activities : 1-8 ROCHFORD ROAD (SITE K)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1971-01-01
End Date : 1971-12-31
Associated Activities : BADDOW ROAD/GOLDLAY ROAD (SITE Q)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1971-01-01
End Date : 1971-12-31
Associated Activities : MILDMAY ROAD [SITE 8]
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1971-01-01
End Date : 1971-12-31
Associated Activities : CABLES YARD, HALL STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1971-01-01
End Date : 1972-12-31
Associated Activities : 1-12 GOLDLAY ROAD (SITE CH AB)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1972-01-01
End Date : 1973-12-31
Associated Activities : ORCHARD STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1972-01-01
End Date : 1972-12-31
Associated Activities : 163 MOULSHAM STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1972-01-01
End Date : 1972-12-31
Associated Activities : 59-63 MOULSHAM STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1972-01-01
End Date : 1973-12-31
Associated Activities : 16 ROMAN ROAD [SITE 2]
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1973-01-01
End Date : 1973-12-31
Associated Activities : PRINCE OF ORANGE, HALL STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1974-01-01
End Date : 1974-12-31
Associated Activities : 23-27 MOULSHAM STREET (SITE CH AG)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1974-01-01
End Date : 1975-12-31
Associated Activities : 1 HALL STREET (SITE AJ)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1975-01-01
End Date : 1976-12-31
Associated Activities : CABLES YARD, HALL STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1975-01-01
End Date : 1976-12-31
Associated Activities : GROVE ROAD/MILDMAY ROAD
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1975-01-01
End Date : 1975-12-31
Associated Activities : FIELD OBSERVATION ON TL 70 NW 21
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1976-05-12
End Date : 1976-05-12
Associated Activities : 108 NEW LONDON ROAD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1984-01-01
End Date : 1984-12-31
Associated Activities : HALL STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1985-01-01
End Date : 1985-12-31
Associated Activities : MILDMAY ROAD AUCTION ROOMS
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1985-01-01
End Date : 1985-12-31
Associated Activities : GODFREY'S YARD, 53-68 MOULSHAM STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1987-01-01
End Date : 1988-12-31
Associated Activities : RAF ASSOCIATION CLUB, HALL STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1988-12-31
Associated Activities : ESSEX CAR SALES, 71-72 MOULSHAM STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1988-12-31
Associated Activities : 193-196 MOULSHAM STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1989-12-31
Associated Activities : CAVENDISH HOUSE, 2-6 PARKWAY
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : CLARENDON HOUSE, 2-5 PARKWAY
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : SALVATION ARMY CITADEL, 70 BADDOW ROAD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT 31 MILDMAY ROAD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : ESSEX & SUFFOLK WATER OFFICES, HALL STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities : 8C ANCHOR STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT 12 HIGH STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31
Associated Activities : 116-117 MOULSHAM STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2012-01-01
End Date : 2012-12-31
Associated Activities : 'MEGAZONE', NEW WRITTLE STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2013-01-01
End Date : 2013-12-31