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Historic England Research Records

Scole Roman Settlement

Hob Uid: 389015
Location :
Norfolk
South Norfolk
Scole
Grid Ref : TM1490078600
Summary : The site of a Roman road and buildings; possibly a town. The Roman place-name may be Villa Faustini, though this site is not necessarily the site of a villa. Mesolithic flint implements were also found. It is also the possible site of a fort. Excavations on the southern edge of the settlement in 1994 located Prehistoric hut circles, timber buildings, wells, enclosures, a road, and evidence of iron working. A mid 5th-early 7th century timber causeway associated with the River Waveney was the latest feature discovered there. Excavations immediately west of the village centre in 1987 found Roman pottery scatters and amorphous features, but no evidence of settlement structures.
More information : TM 149786) Romano British Settlement (R) (Site of) (1)

Iter V. "Villa Faustini fits very well with Scole". (2)

Scole: site of Roman settlement identified as Villa Faustini by Rogerson (8) and by Gale, who records the discovery of Roman floors, wall foundations, coins and pottery, including samian, at Scole House (TM 14857872. See illustration card for further details). Roman sherds including mid 2nd century Samian are reported by F Thrower (5) from 147788, and a dupondius from a garden at TM 15297888 (6). Excavations in 1973 (7 and 8) at TM 147786, on the west of the Roman road (RR 3d) uncovered an east-west street running parallel to two lanes between which were successive rammed chalk and clay floors and cobbled surfaces ranging in date from the early 2nd to the mid 4th century, some with associated clay-lined ovens and hearths. A late 1st century timber building was partially examined and two timber-lined wells and many pits were excavated. Some Mesolithic flints were found in the sub-soil. (For details of adjoining sites possibly connected with the settlement, see subsidiary cards). (3-8)

The location of the Roman name 'VILLA FAUSTINI' mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary (Iter V) between Colchester and Caistor is unknown but it may refer to either the Roman settlement at Scole or that at Stoke Ash (see TM 17 SW 35). The appearance of a villa-name in the itinerary does not necessarily imply the central buiding of an estate could refer simply to a road-station dependent on it. (9)

(TM 14267892) Excavations at Waterloo in 1936 revealed a Roman gravel road adjoining a large deposit of flints and some timber piles and cross-pieces interpreted as the remains of a Roman wharf sited on a creek (no longer in existence) leading to the Waveney. A Roman sandal and some pottery were found on the site of this structure, and to the south of it were cement floors and foundations of several timber buildings, with indications of at least two periods of occupation. Finds included a large quantity of pottery, especially Samian ware, two coins and several articles of bronze.
(TM 14927833). Roman Remains at Scole, Site No.5: "Mr. Thrower found and excavated an eleven foot Roman gravel road on the line of a former footpath running parallel to the Waveney on the east side of Scole bridge."
TM 152787. Extensive area of flint cobbles uncovered, associated with Roman pottery and animal bones, during the construction of sewage filter tanks in 1951.
(TM 15567874) (1) A number of Roman objects, now in Ipswich Museum, and including iron spearheads, part of a lock, a bronze brooch, and some 27 pottery sherds (since lost), together with human bones, were found circa 1903 in a gravel pit on the Scole Lodge estate. Gale considers that this may have been the site of a fort.
(TM 14737850. Romano-British grey ware sherds were dredged from a ditch and in G Moss' possession (1968).
Scheduled. (10)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 6" 1958
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies
Source details : (ALF Rivet)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1, 1970
Source Number : 11
Source : A gazetteer of Roman villas in Britain
Source details : NF 166
Page(s) : 137
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : no.1
Source Number : 3
Source : Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History
Source details : location map (CH Gale)
Page(s) : 263-286
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 22, 1934-6
Source Number : 4
Source : Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History
Source details : plan illust (CH Gale)
Page(s) : 24, 30
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 23, 1937-9
Source Number : 5
Source : Council for British Archaeology Group 7: Bulletin
Source details :
Page(s) : 4
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 7, 1957
Source Number : 6
Source : Council for British Archaeology Group 7: Bulletin
Source details :
Page(s) : 8
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 14, 1967
Source Number : 7
Source : Council for British Archaeology Group 7: Bulletin
Source details :
Page(s) : 9
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 20, 1973
Source Number : 8
Source : Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies
Source details : (A Rogerson)
Page(s) : 439
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 5, 1974
Source Number : 9
Source : The place-names of Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 163, 499
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : English Heritage Record Form ,Plan 14-NOV-1988
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Mesolithic
Display Date : Mesolithic
Monument End Date : -4000
Monument Start Date : -10000
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Find
Monument Period Name : Prehistoric
Display Date : Prehistoric
Monument End Date : 43
Monument Start Date : -500000
Monument Type : Hut Circle
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Human Remains, Road, Building, Fort, Town, Iron Working Site, Enclosure, Well, Villa
Evidence : Find, Sub Surface Deposit, Conjectural Evidence
Monument Period Name : Early Medieval
Display Date : Mid C5-early C7
Monument End Date : 632
Monument Start Date : 433
Monument Type : Causeway
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Period : Mesolithic
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type : LITHIC IMPLEMENT
Object Material :
Period : Roman
Component Monument Type : Human Remains, Road, Building, Fort, Town, Iron Working Site, Enclosure, Well, Villa
Object Type : BROOCH, VESSEL
Object Material : Pottery

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : NF 403
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Norfolk)
External Cross Reference Number : 7934
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Norfolk)
External Cross Reference Number : 1008
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Norfolk)
External Cross Reference Number : 1007
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Norfolk)
External Cross Reference Number : 7954
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Norfolk)
External Cross Reference Number : 7955
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Norfolk)
External Cross Reference Number : 7943
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : TM 17 NW 14
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 389153
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, MUCK'S DUCK FARM, WATERLOO, SITE 2
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1936-01-01
End Date : 1937-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BEECH CLOSE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1949-01-01
End Date : 1949-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BEECH CLOSE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1967-01-01
End Date : 1972-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BEECH CLOSE, SCOLE ROMAN TOWN
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1973-01-01
End Date : 1973-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BY-PASS
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1986-01-01
End Date : 1986-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, A140 SCOLE BYPASS
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1987-01-01
End Date : 1987-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, A140 SCOLE-DICKLEBURGH IMPROVEMENT (RIVER WAVENEY-A140 SOUTH)
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, A143 STUSTON-SCOLE BYPASS
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, OAKLEY (A143 BYPASS)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, STUSTON, A140 IMPROVEMENT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, A143 SCOLE-STUSTON BY-PASS
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SCOLE ROMAN TOWN
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, KAREN CLOSE, SCOLE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31