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Richmond Park

Hob Uid: 397979
Location :
Greater London Authority
Wandsworth, Kingston Upon Thames
Grid Ref : TQ2025072480
Summary : Royal deer park created in 1634 and covering an area of 1000 hectares. It was created in 1634 by the emparking of Sheen Park and Mortlake Park, improved by 1751and has later additions and alterations, including work by Humphry Repton in 1805. The park was extended in 1834 when Petersham Park was incorporated. Additions also date to 1877. Planting within the park also took place throughout the 19th century. WWII army camp close to the Kingston gate established 1938 and later used to house Olympic athletes. Gardens include formal designs laid out during the 20th century and a woodland garden created by JM Fisher in 1950 and further developed by George Thompson between 1951 and 1953. Refurbishment of some of the gardens took place in 2000. Parts of the park were surveyed by RCHME in 1995.
More information : [Name TQ 197731] Richmond Park
Deer Park [T.I.] (1)

Richmond Park: created in 1634 by Charles I when Sheen Park, (temp. Hen. VII) was united with Mortlake Park. It was enclosed by a brick wall completed in 1637. Retained as a Royal Park until 1904.
The modern boundary appears to approximate very closely with that shown on a map of 1637.(2-4)

Park Gates
TQ 18497372 Richmond Gate T.I
20457453 East Sheen Gate T.I
21197422 Roehampton Gate T.I.
22207288 Chohole Gate T.I
21297226 Robin Hood Gate T.I.
19997105 Ladderstile Gate T.I.
18827172 Ham Gate T.I.

Richmond Gates were of wood in 1782: they were replaced by iron gates supported by stone pillars, dated 1798.

Richmond Park is preserved complete and is open to the public. The 17th c. enclosure wall is still extant. (5-6)

Richmond Park is a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and a Grade 1 Historic Park. It covers an area of 954.6 hectares (2358 acres), of which 218 hectares (538.5 acres) are wooded.

Richmond Park was enclosed as a hunting park in the 1630's by Charles I. It was created from parts of Richmond, Petersham, Ham, Kingston, Putney, Roehampton and Mortlake; areas of common land were incorporated as well as enclosed land, scrub, pasture, woodland and Sheen Chase, a Medieval hunting ground. Compensation was paid to those with land rights, and gates were provided for the continued exercise of common rights. Keepers of Richmond Park lived in Petersham Lodge and Old Lodge, both of which have disappeared.

During the Commonwealth the Park was given to the City of London, and it appears to have escaped the worst of the usual asset stripping associated with these times. The Park was restored to the Crown following the Restoration.

George I built New Lodge (White Lodge) between 1727 and 1729, a Palladian villa which was to become the centre of royal hunting activity throughout much of the 18th century. Under the Rangership of Princess Amelia there was an attempt to bar the public from the Park, but a court case which ended in 1758 reaffirmed their rights and the gates were opened once more.

The second half of the 18th century saw many repairs and additions ot the lodges and a new emphasis on the preservation of game, with a corresponding decline in hunting. Viscount Sidmouth carried this policy on into the first half of the 19th century, when many of the fenced plantations were created to preserve game and exclude deer; some 300 acres or half the current area of woodland. In 1856 a major drainage scheme was implemented.

The game preservation regime lasted until the first decade of the present century, although the second half of the 19th century witnessed increasing public use. The public nature of the Park was finally recognised in the first decade of the 20th century, when access was granted even to the fenced plantations.

The Park was used for training and encampment in both World Wars. The former army camp was used as accommodation for Olympic athletes 1948, which also later housed refugees from the Suez crisis 1956. The camp was demolished 1965. (15)

A survey of selected monuments in Richmond Park was conducted by the RCHME in 1995 as part of the Royal Parks Project. The sites were chosen for survey as a result of an earlier survey carried out by Tom Greeves in 1992. These sites, and the results of the Greeves survey have been incorporated into the NMR as child records to this one (see relevant records for further information). (7-9)

Royal deer park created in 1634 and in use as a royal park until 1904. Created from parts of Richmond, Petersham, Ham, Kingston, Putney, Roehampton and Mortlake; areas of common land were incorporated as well as enclosed land, scrub, pasture, woodland, and Sheen Chase, a Medieval hunting ground. The Queens Ride was developed in the mid 18th century, and 19th century features include landscaping by Humphry Repton in 1805 and the Isabella Plantation planted in the 1840s. The plantation also contains a woodland garden whixch was redeveloped from the 1950s. Public access gradually took place from 1904 and the park was fully opened by the 1920s when recreational sports pitches and fields were created. (10)

Royal deer park covering an area of 1000 hectares. It was first emparked during the reign of Charles I and improved by 1751 and later. The park was extended in 1834 when Petersham Park was incorporated into its are. Additions also date to 1877. Planting within the park took place throughout the 19th century. Although there had been some public access to the park previously, full public access to the park was made in 1851. Gardens include formal designs laid out during the 20th century and a woodland garden created by JM Fisher in 1950 and further developed by George Thompson between 1951 and 1953. Refurbishment of some of the gardens took place in 2000. (11)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1949
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Source Number : 2
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1873-4
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Source Number : 11
Source : Register of parks and gardens of special historic interest in England
Source details : Greater London, revised 06-Oct-2003.
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Vol(s) : PART 17
Source Number : 15
Source : The British Olympics: Britain's Olympic Heritage, 1612 - 2012
Source details :
Page(s) : 139
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Source : Richmond Park
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Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Shirley E P. 1867. English Deer Parks, 60
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Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Cundall H M. 1925. Bygone Richmond, Map (No Scale) 1637
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Source Number : 5
Source : The Victoria history of the county of Surrey: volume three
Source details :
Page(s) : 535-37
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Source Number : 6
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 FGA 03-MAR-1966
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Source Number : 7
Source : Richmond Park, Richmond upon Thames, London : an archaeological survey by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England
Source details : RCHME: ROYAL PARKS PROJECT: Richmond Park Survey
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Source Number : 8
Source : Richmond Park historical survey
Source details : Richmond Park: Historical Survey. 1984 (Land Use Consultants)
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Source Number : 9
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Greeves T. 1992. Richmond Park Archaeological Survey
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Source Number : 10
Source : Register of parks and gardens of special historic interest in England
Source details : Greater London
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Vol(s) : Part 17

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Created in 1634
Monument End Date : 1634
Monument Start Date : 1634
Monument Type : Deer Park, Royal Park
Evidence : Botanical Feature
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Improved 1751
Monument End Date : 1751
Monument Start Date : 1751
Monument Type : Royal Park, Deer Park
Evidence : Botanical Feature
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : C19 planting
Monument End Date : 1899
Monument Start Date : 1800
Monument Type : Deer Park, Royal Park
Evidence : Botanical Feature
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Extended 1834
Monument End Date : 1834
Monument Start Date : 1834
Monument Type : Royal Park, Deer Park
Evidence : Botanical Feature
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Additions of 1877
Monument End Date : 1877
Monument Start Date : 1877
Monument Type : Royal Park, Deer Park
Evidence : Botanical Feature
Monument Period Name : 20th Century
Display Date : C20 planting
Monument End Date : 1999
Monument Start Date : 1900
Monument Type : Formal Garden, Royal Park
Evidence : Botanical Feature
Monument Period Name : 20th Century
Display Date : Planted 1950
Monument End Date : 1950
Monument Start Date : 1950
Monument Type : Royal Park, Woodland Garden
Evidence : Botanical Feature
Monument Period Name : 20th Century
Display Date : Developed 1951-53
Monument End Date : 1953
Monument Start Date : 1951
Monument Type : Woodland Garden, Royal Park
Evidence : Botanical Feature
Monument Period Name : 20th Century
Display Date : Refurbished 2000
Monument End Date : 2000
Monument Start Date : 2000
Monument Type : Garden, Royal Park
Evidence : Botanical Feature

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Greater London)
External Cross Reference Number : 200400
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Register of Parks and Gardens Legacy No.
External Cross Reference Number : GD1823
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : TQ 17 SE 10
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1096861
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 398006
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1096861
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 397985
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 398012
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 398015
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 964632
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1024280
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1024285
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : FIELD OBSERVATION ON TQ 17 SE 10
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1966-03-03
End Date : 1966-03-03
Associated Activities : RCHME: ROYAL PARKS PROJECT: RICHMOND PARK SURVEY
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-09-01
Associated Activities : PEN PONDS, RICHMOND PARK
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31