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Wheat Barn

Hob Uid: 974839
Location :
Essex
Braintree
Cressing
Grid Ref : TL7994018772
Summary : The Wheat Barn at Cressing Temple lies north-east of the Farmhouse. The only Templar buildings to survive at Cressing Temple are the Barley Barn and the Wheat Barn. The Wheat Barn was radiocarbon dated to circa AD 1260, and subsequent tree-ring analysis confirmed a date of AD 1257-80. The barn is timber-framed, brick-nogged and partly weatherboarded, roofed with red plain tiles. It sits on a plinth of red brick. There are seven bays aligned approximately north-west/south-east, with two aisles and midstrey to the south-west. It measures 40 metres long, 13 metres wide, and 13 metres high above the plinth, which is approximately 3 metres high at the north-west end. The barn underwent substantial alterations, particularly in the period AD 1410-50, when the outer walls were largely replaced and the porch (midstrey) added. In a major alteration of the 16th century the walls were rebuilt. The brick-nogging, great doors and winnowing doors in the midstrey, appear to be 18th century or later. Opposite the midstrey the great doors are 19th century. A wall on the Wheat Barn fell away and the repair is inscribed 'BUILT 1967'. Exploratory trenches were excavated in advance of repairs in the 1990s. A ditch and 'brushwood fence', probably either Bronze Age or earlier Iron Age in date were identified. These were covered by probable Late Iron Age onwards ploughsoils which were the land-surface until the construction of the barn in the 1250s. A tree-removal hole appears to have been part of the 13th century clearance of the site for the construction of the barn. Over it lay a floor which appears to have been the earliest floor in the barn, formed of slaked and beaten mud. Above this was post-medieval make-up layer which had previously supported various layers of clay floor. These were removed when the current raised floor was inserted. The majority of the wall plinths are 19th-20th century rebuilds. However, one wall plinth in the west bay may be 15-16th century in date.
More information : (TL 799 186) Cressing Temple (NR) (1)

The house of Knights Templar at Cressing was donated by Maud (queen of Stephen) in 1136; all that now remains are two barns. (2)

Barley Barn (TL 71 NE 49) is possibly not later than 1130. Wheat Barn, measuring 140 feet long and 40 feet high, is late 13th century. (3)

The farm was leased to a private owner in 1515 and the present building is of about 1600, very considerably altered. Wheat Barn is listed Grade I. (4)(5)

Recognisable extant remains of the Templars' establishment are confined to the barns. Wheat Barn stands at TL 79951877 and is basically of close studded timber framing with later brick infill and a relatively modern timber roof. Both Barley Barn and Wheat Barn are outstanding examples of early barns. See photographs.

Published 1:2500 survey correct. (6)

The Wheat Barn, mid to late 13th century, altered in early 16th century and 18th century. Timber-framed, brick-nogged and partly weatherboarded, roofed with handmade red plain tiles on a plinth of red brick. 7 bays aligned NW-SE with 2 aisles and midstrey to SW. Dated by radiocarbon to c 1255, dendrochronological analysis of one core indicates construction soon after 1280. In a major alteration of the 16th century the walls were rebuilt with jowled posts. The brick nogging is 18th century or later. (7)

TL 799187 Cressing Temple Scheduled - Essex 211. (8)

The Wheat Barn is among a group of historic buildings at Cressing Temple which are being brought into public ownership by Essex County Council with the help of substantial grants from the National Heritage Memorial Fund and from English Heritage. (9)

Additional References (10)(11)(12)(13)

This record was originally part of TL 71 NE 19. (14)

Recorded by NRIM. Photographed. (15)

Exploratory trenches were excavated in advance of repairs in the 1990s. A ditch and `brushwood fence¿, probably either Bronze Age or earlier Iron Age in date were identified. These were covered by probable Late Iron Age onwards ploughsoils which were the land-surface until the construction of the barn in the 1250s. A tree-removal hole appears to have been part of the 13th century clearance of the site for the construction of the barn. Over it lay a floor which appears to have been the earliest floor in the barn, formed of slaked and beaten mud. Above this was post-medieval make-up layer which had previously supported various layers of clay floor. These were removed when the current raised floor was inserted. The majority of the wall plinths are 19th-20th century rebuilds. However, one wall plinth in the west bay may be 15-16th century in date. In 1995, Richard I Macphail from the Institute of Archaeology, UCL examined the soils preserved within the barn. (16)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1960
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 2
Source : Medieval religious houses in England and Wales
Source details : 1971 edition
Page(s) : 292-,300-3
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 11
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : CA Hewett 'The Development of Carpentry, 1200-1700, an Essex study' 1969
Page(s) : 40-7,58-61
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 12
Source : Vernacular architecture
Source details : 1985 (Fletcher, Tapper & Morris)
Page(s) : 41
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 16
Source Number : 13
Source : Essex journal: a review of archaeology and local history
Source details : (plan of Cressing Temple complex)
Page(s) : 67-71
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 22.3
Source Number : 14
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : KMF 15-JUN-1995 RCHME Recording
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 15
Source : National Record of Industrial Monuments
Source details : Recorded by JB Lucy, Jul-1973, Record No. EX44
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Source Number : 16
Source : Externally held archive reference
Source details : Information from Essex County Council HER. OCT-2010.
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 3
Source : Essex
Source details :
Page(s) : 153
Figs. :
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Source Number : 4
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : DOE (HHR) Braintree RD April 1976
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 5
Source : Essex Archaeological Society transactions
Source details : 1923 (RC Fowler)
Page(s) : 110
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 16
Source Number : 6
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 BHS 06-MAY-1976
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 7
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Braintree, 29-JUL-1988
Page(s) : 42
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1248
Source Number : 8
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : English Heritage SAMs Essex 1987
Page(s) : 4
Figs. :
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Essex Archaeology society Newsletter 1987
Page(s) : 22
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 100
Source Number : 10
Source : An inventory of the historical monuments in Essex. Volume III [north-east]
Source details :
Page(s) : 79
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Bronze Age
Display Date : Bronze Age ditch and fence
Monument End Date : -700
Monument Start Date : -2600
Monument Type : Ditch, Fence
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Iron Age
Display Date : Iron Age soils
Monument End Date : 43
Monument Start Date : -800
Monument Type : Ditch, Fence, Buried Soil Horizon
Evidence :
Monument Period Name : Late 20th Century
Display Date : Wall rebuilt 1967
Monument End Date : 1967
Monument Start Date : 1967
Monument Type : Aisled Barn, Wall
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Late 20th Century
Display Date : Repairs 1990s
Monument End Date : 1999
Monument Start Date : 1990
Monument Type : Aisled Barn
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman soils
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Buried Soil Horizon
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Early Medieval
Display Date : Early Medieval soils
Monument End Date : 1066
Monument Start Date : 410
Monument Type : Buried Soil Horizon
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Medieval soils
Monument End Date : 1257
Monument Start Date : 1066
Monument Type : Buried Soil Horizon
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built 1257-1280
Monument End Date : 1280
Monument Start Date : 1257
Monument Type : Aisled Barn, Timber Framed Building
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Alterations
Monument End Date : 1450
Monument Start Date : 1410
Monument Type : Aisled Barn
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Altered early C16
Monument End Date : 1532
Monument Start Date : 1500
Monument Type : Aisled Barn
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Alterations and additions C18
Monument End Date : 1800
Monument Start Date : 1701
Monument Type : Aisled Barn
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : C19th additions and alterations
Monument End Date : 1900
Monument Start Date : 1801
Monument Type : Aisled Barn
Evidence : Extant Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : NRI01
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : EX 211
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 116397
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 85067
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Essex)
External Cross Reference Number : 29997
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1002122
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1123866
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : TL 71 NE 50
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 974856
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 1526965
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, NATIONAL RECORD OF INDUSTRIAL MONUMENTS
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 1960-01-01
End Date : 1975-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CRESSING TEMPLAR BARNS
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31