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Saltwood Castle

Hob Uid: 463799
Location :
Kent
Folkestone and Hythe
Saltwood
Grid Ref : TR1612535913
Summary : Remains of a castle, part ruin and part restored. The oval inner bailey and extant inner curtain wall date to the mid 12th century and were built by Henry de Essex, Constable of England and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. The curtain wall includes 3 round Norman towers which rather unusually project inwards. The most eastern tower was later incorporated into the grand barbican erected as part of the extensive remodelling undertaken by Archbishop William Courtenay in 1382. The Archbishop also added 2 projecting square towers to the southern section of the inner curtain and erected an outer curtain wall which is now ruinous. Following 20th century restoration the barbican remains inhabited. The moated inner bailey also contains 2 halls, again very unusual. The oldest of the 2 dates from the early 14th century, based on the window tracery, and is now quite ruinous. The other, dates from the late 14th century and was built as the Archbishop's audience chamber. Now a largely modern reconstruction although the vaulted undercroft is original. Scheduled.
More information : [TR 16103590] Saltwood Castle [NR] (Remains of) (1)

Saltwood Castle - circa 1160 to 15th century, ruined in 1580, (see plan AO/LP/62/49 (5)) with 19th and 20th century additions.
The uninhabited parts are scheduled. (2-6)

Saltwood Castle as described above. In good condition. (Divorced survey at 1/1250: Earthworks). (7)

No change. (8)

Saltwood Castle, Castle Road. Largely ruinous. Core of inner curtain wall 12th (or possibly 11th century). Rest 12th, 13th and 14th. Bastions and Curtain Wall about 10 metres South-East of Saltwood Castle Grade I. South-west bastion and part of south curtain wall of outer bailey. Late 14th century. Lower courses possibly earlier. (9)

Romantically secluded in its bower of trees, Saltwood is a castle that readily rouses romantic stories but not one that the student of architectural history can approach with confidence. It was taken into the personal possession of Archbishop Lanfranc after the Conquest, and appears to have remained episcopal property.
The great gatehouse bears the arms of Archbishop Courteney, who began to make the castle his chief residence in 1382. However, for long periods Saltwood was in lay hands, such as at the time of Domesday, and in the mid 12th century, when both owners were supposed to have fortified Saltwood. Nothing can be dated to the 11th century, nor is there any proof that the curtain wall and towers of the inner bailey are of the 12th century. The outer bailey is the work of Archbishop Courteney.

It was not a naturally defensible site, although the ground falls
fairly steeply towards the south. In spite of the moat around the
inner bailey and in spite of Courtenay's proud tower, Saltwood would soon have fallen to a determined attacker. The castle was first mentioned in 1163. It was dismantled in 1175 by Henry II as the Pipe Rolls mention the throwing down of the motte, (12) and the south wall (15) being demolished.

At the NW, through the four-centred arch of the barbican, of circa 1383, one enters the outer bailey, of the early 13th century, roughly a triangle with round angle towers with arrow-loops, and intermediate curtain walling a great deal ruined except at the south corner. On the west side, Courtenay's gatehouse tower, of circa 1385 (17), extends the earlier gatehouse in the inner bailey forward over the moat.
The two-bay vault of the entrance passage was restored in 1885 by F Beeston, whose additions to the back of the gatehouse `made it into a dwelling' the inner ward of circa 1160 (16) has walls which are complete. On the south side of this the moat became a full-scale lake, formed by damming the end of the valley with a bank of earth.

There are two high, square towers on the south wall, three further towers on the west, north and east sides. These three have the peculiarity that they project internally, leaving no mark on the
outside of the walls except a pair of shallow buttresses. Datable features are absent from them all, except the entrance arch of the gatehouse tower. The arch is pointed, a 14th century form, and
there is a portcullis groove.

The domestic ranges lie against the south wall of the inner bailey, and is remarkable in that it includes two halls. The earlier hall
at the east end is of c.1300, and was raised on an undercroft.
Buildings further west, date to Archbiship Courtenay's time including the second hall which lies on a pointed tunnel-vaulted undercroft. The hall itself is largely the work of Philip Tilden in the 1930s. Courtenay's chapel is razed. (10-18)

Saltwood Castle was visited by the Battle and District Historical
Society on 24 June 1959. (19)

TR 16153595. Saltwood Castle listed as having extant gun loops of 1380. (20)

Additional bibliography - not consulted. (21-34)

Remains of a castle, part ruin and part restored. The oval inner bailey and extant inner curtain wall date to the mid 12th century and were built by Henry de Essex, Constable of England and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. The curtain wall includes 3 round Norman towers which rather unusually project inwards. The most eastern tower was later incorporated into the grand barbican erected as part of the extensive remodelling undertaken by Archbishop William Courtenay in 1382. The Archbishop also added 2 projecting square towers to the southern section of the inner curtain and erected an outer curtain wall which is now ruinous. Following 20th century restoration the barbican remains inhabited. The moated inner bailey also contains 2 halls, again very unusual. The oldest of the 2 dates from the early 14th century, based on the window tracery, and is now quite ruinous. The other, dates from the late 14th century and was built as the Archbishop's audience chamber. Now a largely modern reconstruction although the vaulted undercroft is original. Scheduled. (35)

A tower in the outer bailey has 3 gunports inserted in the late C14. (36)

Article on planned repairs and investigations. (37)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1961
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 2
Source : Country Life
Source details : 1942 (C Hassey)
Page(s) : 986-9
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 92
Source Number : 10
Source : North east and east Kent
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Page(s) : 441-443
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 11
Source : Journal of the British Archaeological Association
Source details : 1914 (AHH Murrey)
Page(s) : 195-201
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 20
Source Number : 12
Source : The Victoria history of the county of Kent, volume one
Source details :
Page(s) : 420-21
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 1
Source Number : 13
Source : The castles of Great Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 140
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Source Number : 14
Source : The English castle
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Page(s) : 105
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Source Number : 15
Source : Norman castles in Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 306
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Source Number : 16
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the islands. Volume I : Anglesey - Montgomery
Source details :
Page(s) : 233
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Source Number : 17
Source : The English mediaeval house
Source details :
Page(s) : 157
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Source Number : 18
Source : Journal of the British Archaeological Association
Source details : 1937
Page(s) : 130, 139, 142
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1
Source Number : 19
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Trans Battle Hist Soc 8 1959 22-23
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Source Number : 3
Source : Country Life
Source details : 27-Nov-42
Page(s) : 1034-7
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Source Number : 20
Source : A handbook of Kent's defences from 1540 until 1945
Source details :
Page(s) : 38
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Source Number : 21
Source : CASTLES OF ENGLAND
Source details :
Page(s) : 35-38
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 22
Source : Some account of domestic architecture in England from the conquest to the end of the thirteenth century
Source details : 1851-59 (TH Turner JH Parker)
Page(s) : 307-8
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 3
Source Number : 23
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Buck's Antiquities 1 1774 140 (S and N Buck)
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Source Number : 24
Source : The Builder
Source details : 1885
Page(s) : 254
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 49
Source Number : 25
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Hist and Topo Survey of the Co Kent 3 1778-99 404-6 (E Hasted)
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Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Castles and Cannon A Study of Early Artillery Fortificat in Eng 1960 12 20 (BH St J O'Neil)
Page(s) :
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Source : English topography, part 6 : Kent - Lancashire, being a classified collection of the chief contents of the Gentleman's Magazine from 1731-1868
Source details : 1802
Page(s) : 1089-90
Figs. :
Plates :
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Source Number : 28
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : A Saunter through Kent 23 (C Igglesden)
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Source Number : 29
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Wanderings of an Antiquary 1854 121-2 (T Wright)
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Source Number : 4
Source : Country Life
Source details : 04-Dec-42
Page(s) : 1082-5
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Source Number : 30
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : The Antiquarian 1 No.2 1871 24
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Source Number : 31
Source : Country Life
Source details : 1948
Page(s) : 574
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Vol(s) : 104
Source Number : 32
Source : Country Life
Source details :
Page(s) : 238
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 10
Source Number : 33
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Antiquaries of England and Wales 3 1787 109-12 (F Grose)
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Source Number : 34
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Biblog Topog Brit 1 1780-90 6 Pt 2 63
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 35
Source : English castles : a guide by counties
Source details :
Page(s) : 127
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Source Number : 36
Source : Fort : the international journal of fortification and military architecture
Source details :
Page(s) : 84
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 4, 1977
Source Number :
Source : Cornerstone: the magazine of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings [SPAB]
Source details :
Page(s) : 26-35
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 30 (2), 2009
Source Number : 5
Source : The Archaeological Journal
Source details : 1929 (R Davies)
Page(s) : 309-10
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 86
Source Number : 6
Source : Ancient monuments in England and Wales : list prepared by the Ministry of Works, corrected to 31st December 1960
Source details :
Page(s) : 59
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Source Number : 7
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 ASP 26-APR-1963
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Source Number : 8
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F2 ASP 01-DEC-1969
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Source Number : 9
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : DOE (HHR) Dist of Shepway Kent 15 May 1986 40-41
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Source Number : 9a
Source : Country Life
Source details : 20-NOV-1942, 27-NOV-1942 and 4-DEC-1942
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built circa mid C12
Monument End Date : 1160
Monument Start Date : 1140
Monument Type : Castle, Moat, Curtain Wall
Evidence : Ruined Building, Earthwork, Structure
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Additions c1382
Monument End Date : 1392
Monument Start Date : 1372
Monument Type : Curtain Wall, Barbican, Gatehouse, Interval Tower, Loopholed Wall
Evidence : Structure, Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : c15
Monument End Date : 1499
Monument Start Date : 1400
Monument Type : Loopholed Wall
Evidence : Structure

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : KE 73
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 175639
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : TR 13 NE 7
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 541563
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON TR 13 NE 7
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1963-04-26
End Date : 1963-04-26
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON TR 13 NE 7
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1969-12-01
End Date : 1969-12-01
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT SALTWOOD CASTLE
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31