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Historic England Research Records

Camulodunum

Hob Uid: 47459
Location :
Kirklees
Kirklees
Huddersfield
Grid Ref : SE0845017450
Summary : The earthwork and buried remains of a Roman fort at Slack; which is possibly associated with the Roman place-name Camulodunum. Archaeological evidence suggests an initial late first century AD fort (possibly more specifically dating to Agricola's campaigns of AD79-80), first built in timber, with an annexe. It which was later partly rebuilt in stone in two 2nd century phases of activity. Tiles bearing a roman military stamp have been found from the latter second century phase: they probably identify the presence of the 4th Cohort of Breuci (an auxilliary infantry unit from Pannonia (now present day Serbai/Bosnia). It has been thought that the fort was abandoned in the second century around AD 120-140, possibly without it being fully rebuilt; however excavation work carried out in 2007-8 in the external vicus area to the north-west of the fort has produced evidence of later activity in this area of the site, possibly into the mid 4th century AD. There were also traces of the water supply for the fort.
More information : [SE 08451745] Roman Fort [GS] (Site of) (1)

The Roman name Camulodunum is applied to Slack as a 'doubtful attribution' on the OS map of Roman Britain. The literary references, up to the latest in 1958 (2), record a long controversy as to the application of the two names Camvlodvnvm or Cambodvnvm which occur in this area.
Excavations have established that the first fort at Slack was a temporary wooden structure of Agricolan date 79-80 AD. This was rebuilt c.104 AD, again between 117-122 AD but this last rebuilding was never completed and the fort abandoned between 122-125 AD, having been supplanted by the fort at Greetland.
The internal buildings of the fort followed the normal pattern of an orthodox military fort and detailed descriptions of them are given in the excavation reports.
The remains of a large annexe were found on the north side and comprised an irregular area paved with stone slabs and tile and demarcated by ditches with traces of palisade-banks. Scheduled. (2-3)

The rampart of the fort is well preserved at the NE angle where, although spread by cultivation, it is 1.3m high. In the SW it is represented by a bank averaging 8m in width, and 0.4m in height. The rampart is obliterated in the NW by modern farm building, but was identified, at SE 0837 1748, during the 1960 excavations by the Tolson Memorial Museum.
To the SE it is virtually ploughed out, but is still discernable as a well spread ridge. The limits of the annexe area, as delineated by plan (see plan), cannot be identified on the ground, except for the possible remains, at SE 0849 1762, of the ditch annotated 'B'. Within the area, the western edge of the occupation road leading to the NW gate, is visiblefrom SE 0834 1759 to SE 0838 1753 as a slight depression. This was also proved in the 1960 excavation.
The interior of the fort is largely under pasture. All the material from the various excavations is now at the Tolson Memorial Museum, Huddersfield, in a "Slack Collection"; it includes re-constructed Samian bowls, cooking pots, and a large, bulbous-type amphora.
A 25" survey of the fort has been made. (4)

Condition correct and survey of 5.1.61. unchanged. (5)

An excavation at Slack Roman fort was carred out in 1963 by the Tolson Memorial Museum and Heath Grammar School, Halifax. Name 'Camulodunum'? accepted for 4th edition R B Map. (6)

In 1970 a section of the defences at the NW angle showed the lip of a ditch at least 1.5m deep, a turf rampart c.8.5m wide and the intervallum-street. There was no sign of additions or alterations to the actual rampart and ditch, but two successive small ovens were found set into the rear of the rampart. The area round the later oven was roughly paved and a secondary foundation trench on the west side might well belong to a covered cookhouse. In the interior the known granary was relocated. Rough stone walls to the west of this may have supported a tank 1.2m wide. Two foundation slots belonging to timber buildings of the original fort were identified between the later features. (7)

The name Camulodunum is probably to be identified with the Roman fort at Slack. It is presumed that the name was transferred from a native hillfort, either Almondbury (SE 11 SE 1) which though large is 5 miles away, or the smaller but much nearer earthwork on Old Lindley Moor (SE 01 NE 3). [See also SE 01 NE 12 & 13] (8)

Summary of defences in corpus. (9)

Scheduled. (10)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1930-55
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Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Tolson Memorial Museum Handbook IV 1925 pp30-47 Plans Illustrations (I A Richmond)
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Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Ancient Monuments of England and Wales 1958 p92 (MOW)
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Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 RWE 05-JAN-61
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Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F2 JRF 10-DEC-64
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Source Number : 6
Source : The Yorkshire archaeological journal
Source details :
Page(s) : 170
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 41, 1964
Source Number : 7
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Britannia 2 1971 p254 (D R Wilson)
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Source Number : 8
Source : The place-names of Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 295
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Source Number : 9
Source : Romano-British urban defences
Source details :
Page(s) : 131
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 126
Source Number : 10
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : English Heritage SAMs W Yorks 31-Dec-87 p6
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Rebuilt about 104 AD
Monument End Date : 104
Monument Start Date : 104
Monument Type : Fort
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : possibly still in use mid C4AD
Monument End Date : 366
Monument Start Date : 333
Monument Type : Vicus
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Rebuilt 117-122
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Fort
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Late first CAD
Monument End Date : 100
Monument Start Date : 77
Monument Type : Fort, Fort Annexe
Evidence : Earthwork

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : WY 158
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SE 01 NE 2
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 47487
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : SLACK FORT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1893-01-01
End Date : 1893-12-31
Associated Activities : SLACK FORT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1913-01-01
End Date : 1915-12-31
Associated Activities : SLACK FORT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1958-01-01
End Date : 1961-12-31
Associated Activities : FIELD OBSERVATION ON SE 01 NE 2
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1961-01-05
End Date : 1961-01-05
Associated Activities : SLACK FORT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1962-01-01
End Date : 1963-12-31
Associated Activities : FIELD OBSERVATION ON SE 01 NE 2
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1964-12-10
End Date : 1964-12-10
Associated Activities : SLACK FORT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1968-01-01
End Date : 1970-12-31
Associated Activities : SLACK ROMAN FORT
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : OUTLANE GOLF CLUB (SLACK FORT)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : SLACK ROMAN FORT
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : SLACK ROMAN CAMP (SLACK FORT)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : OUTLANE GOLF CLUB
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : OUTLANE GOLF CLUB
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : SLACK ROMAN FORT, SLACK LANE
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 2006-01-01
End Date : 2006-12-31
Associated Activities : OUTLANE GOLF CLUB
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31