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How Hill Tower

Hob Uid: 51891
Location :
North Yorkshire
Harrogate
Markington with Wallerthwaite
Grid Ref : SE2760367050
Summary : A chantry chapel and folly situated on How Hill, south of Studley Royal Park. The Chantry Chapel of St Michel de Monte was constructed circa 1200 and rebuilt by Abbot Huby circa 1495-1526 but then fell into ruins until John Aislabie incorporated it into his garden scheme at Studley Royal Park. This was the first garden building to be built by Aislabie and its construction is documented in letters he wrote in 1719. The Canal (Monument HOB UID 1093044) was aligned onto this feature. It is also likely that the tower was designed by Sir John Vanbrugh which had been carefully placed to set off the ruins and to form a backdrop to them. The tower was originally a two-storeyed square building with a cantilevered roof of pyramidical form, the only parallel for which so far discovered is at Castle Howard. The tower was used as a gaming house in 1737-8 and the chapel ruins were converted and reused as farm outbuildings during the later 18th century. The outbuildings resemble a nave to the tower from a distance.On the western and northern flanks of How Hill are a series of earthworks. To the west is a substantial bank extending north-south for 150 metres forming a boundary between the chapel and the agricultural land to the west and may have originally defined the curtilage of the chapel. Earthwork terraces and platforms lie between the bank and the hilltop. Two areas of ridge and furrow survive to the west of the bank.
More information : [SE 2761 6705] THE TOWER [T.I.] CHAPEL OF ST. MICHAEL DE MONTE [G.T.] (Remains of) (1)

How Hill (Aislabie's Tower). A Gothic tower built about 1550 on the site of St. Michael de Monte, a former chantry of Fountains founded in 1345. Mediaeval material was used and a monastic inscription put over the doorway. (2-3)

The Tower was probably restored in the 19th c. when the abutting farm buildings were built, See GP:AO/63/103/2 (4)

John Aislabie built the tower as part of the first phase of the garden at Studley Royal Park, circa 1718-23 to be seen from the garden rather than to provide a view of the garden. Originally it was a two-storeyed square building with a cantilevered roof of pyramidical form, the only parallel for which so far discovered is at Castle Howard, and that probably by Vanbrugh. The tower was carefully sited to utilise the ruins of the Chantry Chapel of St. Michael de Monte (circa 1200) and formed a backdrop to them. The chapel was reconstructed by Abbot Huby circa 1495-1526 but lay ruinous from the Reformation until Aislabie's works began. Fragments of the ruins were incorporated into the tower. It was used as a gaming house in 1737-8 and may later have functioned as a folly. The chapel ruins were converted and reused as farm outbuildings later in the 18th century, the outbuildings resembling a nave to the tower from a distance. (5-6)

SE27606704. A series of earthwork features survive on the western and northern flanks of How Hill. To the west, a substantial earth and stone bank runs north-south for 150 metres. It forms a boundary between the ground around the chapel and the agricultural land to the west and may have originally defined the curtilage of the chapel. A series of earthwork terraces and platforms lie between this bank and the hilltop and 2 areas of ridge and furrow survive to the west of the bank. Scheduled. (7)

This was the first garden building to be built by John Aislabie and its construction is documented in letters he wrote in 1719. The Canal (Monument HOB UID 1093044) was aligned onto this feature. It is also likely that the tower was designed by Sir John Vanbrugh. (8)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1956.
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Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Wood E.S. 1946. Ancient Buildings of Harrogate, 26
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Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Hargrove E. 1832. History of Knaresbrough, 206
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Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 RWE 21-FEB-1963
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Source Number : 5
Source : Fountains Abbey and Studley Royal Estate: an Archaeological Survey. The National Trust
Source details :
Page(s) : 226-7, 346
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Source Number : 6
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Borough of Harrogate
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Vol(s) : 1019
Source Number : 7
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 07-Aug-01
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Source Number : 8
Source : The Wonder of the North - The Lost Buildings of the Aislabie Family's Pleasure Grounds at Studley Royal
Source details :
Page(s) : 36-37
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 8

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built circa 1200
Monument End Date : 1210
Monument Start Date : 1190
Monument Type : Chantry Chapel
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Between 1346 and 1539
Monument End Date : 1539
Monument Start Date : 1346
Monument Type : Boundary Bank, Terraced Ground, Building Platform, Trackway
Evidence : Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Rebuilt c1495-1526
Monument End Date : 1526
Monument Start Date : 1495
Monument Type : Chantry Chapel
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Constructed 1719
Monument End Date : 1719
Monument Start Date : 1719
Monument Type : Tower, Folly
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : 1737-38
Monument End Date : 1738
Monument Start Date : 1737
Monument Type : Gaming House, Folly
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Late C18
Monument End Date : 1800
Monument Start Date : 1767
Monument Type : Outbuilding
Evidence : Extant Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 92148
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 330987
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 31368
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SE 26 NE 12
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1588175
Relationship type : Is referred to by

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SE 26 NE 12
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1963-02-21
End Date : 1963-02-21
Associated Activities : Primary, HOW HILL
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, INVESTIGATION BY RCHME/EH ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1995-11-14
End Date : 1995-11-14
Associated Activities : Primary, HOW HILL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HOW HILL, FOUNTAINS PARK
Activity type : MANAGEMENT SURVEY
Start Date : 2006-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31