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Historic England Research Records

Mowbray Castle

Hob Uid: 52175
Location :
North Yorkshire
Harrogate
Kirkby Malzeard
Grid Ref : SE2375774545
Summary : Motte and bailey castle surviving as an earthwork. It is first mentioned in 1131as one of a group siezed in 1095, and was dismantled in 1176. The area of the motte is heavily wooded and the bailey is under pasture. The large, low motte is 25 metres in diameter. The northern edge of the monument is defined by the Kex Beck, which has at some time been revetted. The bailey measures 110 metres across. Excavations have revealed evidence for buildings on the motte platform. Scheduled. The motte and bailey are visible as earthworks on air photos and on lidar imagery. The lidar imagery also shows a small hollow of uncertain date within the motte platform.
More information : [SE 2373 7456] Mowbray Castle [G.T.] (Site of) (1)

At Castle Hill, Kirkby Malzeard, is the site of the castle of the Mowbrays, dismantled in 1176. It was probably a motte, but a house and garden obscure the plan and the remains comprise a shapeless mound and a few loose stones.

Whitaker (4) describes a single oval area without a keep, and the groundwork of the principal buildings near the North wall of the bailey, where several Norman capitals had been discovered. GIRALDUS (a) however, mentions an outer and inner ward and a probable shell-keep. (2-4)

Published survey (OS 25" 1929) revised.
The visible remains are of a Motte and a single Bailey. The motte is flat-topped and has an average height of 3.0m. on the south side; it is now thickly overgrown by trees. The bailey is under pasture, and is poorly defined. There are no building foundations within either feature. (5)

Condition unchanged. Survey of 4.5.62 checked and correct. (6)

No Change. (7)

SE 238 746. Mowbray Castle. Scheduled No NY/443. (8)

SE 2375 7455. Motte and bailey castle, known as Mowbray Castle, E of Kirkby Malzeard. Scheduled RSM No 26935. The area of the motte is heavily wooded and the bailey is under pasture. The large, low, motte is 25m in diameter. The N edge of the monument is defined by the Kex Beck, which has at some time been revetted. The bailey measures 110m across. There is no stone fabric visible, although excavations have revealed the existence of stone defences and domestic buildings on the motte platform. The surrounding woodland was landscaped in post-
medieval times and the motte had a series of terraces and steps built into it in the 19th century, of which little trace can now be seen. A road runs along the base of the motte to the SE, separating the motte from the bailey.

The monument is first mentioned in 1131 and was one of the three Mowbray castles slighted after the insurrection of 1173-74. It was destroyed in 1176 on the order of Henry II and does not appear to have been re-occupied since. It came into the hands of the Aislabie family in the 18th century and the surrounding woodland was landscaped to create rides and vistas. (9)

Listed by Cathcart King. (10)

The remains of the motte and bailey are visible as earthworks on historical and recent air photos and lidar imagery at SE2376 7455. The motte is largely obscured by trees and only clearly visible on the lidar imagery that has been processed to remove tree cover (ie the digitial terrain model). It appears that the eastern edge of the bailey, which is defined by a low bank, was overploughed in the medieval or post medieval period (see UID 1588841). These sources also suggest that there has been some truncation to the south-western edge of the bailey since the date of the earliest air photos.
A small hollow visible in the motte platform may be the remains of archaeological excavations see authority 9 above. (11-14)


Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1930.
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Source Number : 2
Source : The Yorkshire archaeological journal
Source details :
Page(s) : 357-9
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 33 - 1936-38
Source Number : 8
Source : County list of Scheduled Monuments : March 1994
Source details :
Page(s) : 20
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Source Number : 9
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : English Heritage Scheduling Amendment 14/12/95
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Source Number : 10
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the Islands. Volume II : Norfolk-Yorkshire and the islands
Source details :
Page(s) : 520
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Plates :
Vol(s) : Feb-83
Source Number : 11
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : RAF/540/1401 F21 262 01-SEP-1954
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Source Number : 2
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : MAL/67080 V 200 21-AUG-1967
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Source Number : 3
Source : The Victoria history of the county of York, volume two
Source details :
Page(s) : 45
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 1912
Source Number : 3
Source : Light detection and ranging (lidar) airborne survey
Source details : LIDAR SE2374 ENVIRONMENT AGENCY DSM XX-XXX-XXXX
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Source Number : 3a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : De Vita Galfrioi (Rolls SER )iv.367.
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Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Hist. Of Richmondshire Vol.2 p.108 (Whitaker) 1823.
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Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 RWE 04-MAY-62
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Source Number : 6
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F2 RWE 19-FEB-63
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Source Number : 7
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F3 RE 30-JUN-81
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Extant 1095-1176
Monument End Date : 1176
Monument Start Date : 1095
Monument Type : Motte And Bailey, Building Platform, Motte, Bailey
Evidence : Earthwork, Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : NY 443
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 26935
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (North Yorkshire)
External Cross Reference Number : MNY20683
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SE 27 SW 4
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1588841
Relationship type : Is referred to by

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SE 27 SW 4
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1962-05-04
End Date : 1962-05-04
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SE 27 SW 4
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1963-02-19
End Date : 1963-02-19
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SE 27 SW 4
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1981-06-30
End Date : 1981-06-30
Associated Activities : Primary, MOWBRAY CASTLE
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1983-01-01
End Date : 1983-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FOUNTAINS DAIRY
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31