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Historic England Research Records

Newton Kyme Henge

Hob Uid: 54813
Location :
North Yorkshire
Selby
Newton Kyme Cum Toulston
Grid Ref : SE4594544982
Summary : A henge monument visible as cropmarks at Newton Kyme. The site is located on a raised river terrace to the south of the River Wharfe. In 1979, the site reportedly survived as slight earthworks, although Ordnance Survey field investigation 6 years later was unable to locate any surveyable traces. The site comprises a sub oval enclosure defined by three ditch circuits, with a bank between inner and middle ditches. Maximum external diameter is circa 250 metres. The innermost ditch has oppsed north and south entrances. The middle ditch is incomplete as a cropmark, but both this and the outer ditch are more irregular and are markedly segmented. This has led to suggestions that the site may have begun as a causewayed enclosure, although an outer segmented ditch is a common feature of henge monuments in Yorkshire. The site has been examined by RCHME as part of the Industry and Enclosure in the Neolithic Project, and as part of the Vale of York Project. The site is scheduled.
More information : SE 459450. The soilmark of a henge monument probably Class IIa type - see 'Thornborough Circles' (Early Bronze Age, SE 27 NE 4) was visible after ploughing in 1976. The lane to the north had been obviously curved to avoid the bank which is still slightly visible on the ground at this point. See 25" trace. (1)

St Joseph AP shows the soil mark of the western side of the henge.(2)

RAF and OS APs not available.
SE 459450. The henge at Newton Kyme was partly revealed on St. Joseph air photographs taken in 1967 but the whole extent was not identified until 1976 (3,4). The henge consisted of three concentric rings with approximate diameters of 210, 180 and 90m. The inner ring, which had entrances at 170 and 350 degrees, could be traced very well, though there were breaks on the east side. The middle ring had many interruptions and was missing for perhaps 70m. on the north. A long, curving cropmark crossed the henge from N-S and two parallel lines tangential to the outer ring at the south ran in an east-west direction (3).
Examination of the henge on the ground in 1979 revealed a wide inner ditch, oval in plan, separated by a broad space from the outer ditches. A bank is raised to nearly one metre. The inner ditch is visible as a slight hollow in distinct contrast to the mound. To the west, the marks suggest a chain of irregular quarry-pits. There is a contrast between the regular finished appearance of the inner ditch and the irregular and discontinuous outer ditch or ditches. (3-4)

This site lies very close to the Roman forts at Newton Kyme. The fact that it still survives as a low earthwork has led to the suggestion that, like Maumbury Rings, the henge may have been reused as a military ludus or amphitheatre. (5)

No surveyable trace in field of wheat. (6)

An air photographic interpretation by the RCHME Newton Kyme Project confirmed the cropmark henge centred at SE 4593 4499. There was no evidence from air photographs to suggest any structural changes to the henge, associated with its use as Roman military 'ludus', as described by authority 5. The long curving cropmark orientated in a north-south direction across the henge, described by authority 3, is a geological cropmark. The two linear ditches orientated in an east-west direction, south of the henge, also mentioned by authority 3, form a trackway described in SE 44 NE 32.

Three concentric ditches with some evidence of an earthwork bank, were visible on air photographs. The disparate form of the broad inner ditch and the two outer segmented ditches led D. Riley (7a) to suggest they were not contemporary, as the form of the outer ditches resembled a Neolithic causewayed camp, surrounding the inner henge. In view of this, the henge was evaluated as part of the RCHME Industry and Enclosure in the Neolithic Project. It was concluded that this form of henge (Class IIA) has close parallels with six other Yorkshire henges, forming a regional group, of Late Neolithic/ Early Bronze Age henges, and it is was not considered to include a Neolithic causewayed camp structure. (7)

SE 459450 Roman fort and vicus and Neolithic henge monument,
scheduled. (8)

Newton Kyme. SE 459450. Included in a gazetteer of henge monuments. (9)

The site of the henge falls within the project area for the Vale of York Project and was transcribed at a scale of 1:10,0000, based on the 1:2,5000 plan. Noe new features were noted on recent photographs taken since the 1995 air survey.
(11)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Oral information, correspondence (not archived) or staff comments
Source details : Letter (E C Waight CS/NR 23.9.77 25" trace transferred from AP)
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Source Number : 1a
Source : Aerial photograph
Source details : AP (D N Riley 980/21 10.7.76)
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Source Number : 9
Source : Henge monuments and related sites of Great Britain : air photographic evidence and catalogue
Source details : Site 211
Page(s) : 310
Figs. : 311
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Vol(s) : 175
Source Number : 10
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 29-Jan-98
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Source Number : 11
Source : RCHME/EH/HE Aerial Photographers comment
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Source : Newton Kyme/ink AP transcription
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Source : Newton Kyme/pencil AP transcription
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Source : Newton Kyme
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Source Number : 2
Source : Aerial photograph
Source details : AP (J K St Joseph ZX 86 undated)
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Source Number : 3
Source : The Yorkshire archaeological journal
Source details :
Page(s) : 25-27
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Plates : 32
Vol(s) : 49, 1977
Source Number : 4
Source : Antiquity
Source details :
Page(s) : 133-4
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Vol(s) : 54, 1980
Source Number : 5
Source : Roman Britain from the air
Source details :
Page(s) : 112-3
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Source Number : 6
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 ISS 14-AUG-85
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Source Number : 7
Source : RCHME/EH/HE Aerial Photographers comment
Source details : Yvonne Boutwood/28-JUL-1995/RCHME:Newton Kyme Project
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Source Number : 7a
Source : Current archaeology
Source details : Riley DN. Great monuments-wide landscapes
Page(s) : 71-75
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Vol(s) : 74, VII, No 3
Source Number : 8
Source : County list of Scheduled Monuments : March 1994
Source details : North Yorkshire
Page(s) : 77
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Late Neolithic
Display Date : Late Neolithic
Monument End Date :
Monument Start Date :
Monument Type : Henge
Evidence : Cropmark

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : NY 538
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 26907
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SE 44 NE 21
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1200540
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : FIELD OBSERVATION ON SE 44 NE 21
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1985-08-14
End Date : 1985-08-14
Associated Activities : RCHME: NEWTON KYME PROJECT
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 1994-11-29
End Date : 1995-07-25
Associated Activities : RCHME: VALE OF YORK NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 1998-01-06
End Date : 2000-12-31