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Historic England Research Records

Cawood Castle

Hob Uid: 56254
Location :
North Yorkshire
Selby
Cawood
Grid Ref : SE5740837684
Summary : The Archbishop of York's palace is first mentioned in 1181 and was transformed into a sort of quadrangular castle between 1374-88. Between the 13th and 16th centuries many archbishops altered and improved the palace, and this is supported by much documentary evidence. The palace and castle were largely demolished in 1750. The chapel and gatehouse of 1426-51 remain as farm buildings and are in a good state of repair. Fragments of precinct wall have been discovered. The castle seems to have extended further east and extensive foundations of former buildings existed until circa 1778. Scheduled.
More information : (SE 57403768) Cawood Castle (NR) (Remains of) (NAT) (1)

Cawood was originally one of the chief residences of the Archbishops of York. First mentioned in 1181, it was transformed into a castle of the later plan by Archbishop Neville (d. 1391). All that remains is the Gatehouse dating to 1426-51, which is scheduled. (2-4)

Besides the earthworks (SE 53 NE 20), the only remains of Cawood Catle are the gatehouse and the remains of a chapel (previously published on OS 25" 1912, both now used as domestic and farm buildings and in a good state of repair. See ground photographs. (5)

Condition unchanged. (6)

The Castle seems to have extended further east and extensive foundations of former buildings existed until circa 1778. (See early 18th century engraving on illustration card). (7)

SE 575 376. Cawood Castle. The earthworks of two wards; probably some sort of quadrangular castle. Built 1374-88 (a) - Archbishop Nevill added some towers and other buildings to the archiepiscopal palace, but it seems this was the beginning of the castle. (8)

Banqueting hall. c1426/51 with later rebuilding to upper part of south side. Dark pink brick with magnesian limestone dressing to original openings and swept pantile roof. Upper-floor hall. 2- storeys, 8 bays. North front: partly obscured by later structures. From left, bays 3 to 7 visible: 4-centred doorway and blocked single cusped light, flat-arched window under drip mould; remains of similar blocked window; later cart entrance;a further original window and later blocked round-arched entrance; blocked original window. Each bay articulated by buttresses with set-offs rising through one and a half storeys. To first floor similar blocked window to each bay. To rear (south) blind ground floor with later openings to first and seventh bays and cart entrance to fourth bay. Ground floor projects slightly and has moulded brick and magnesian limestone band at first floor level. Each bay articulated by buttresses with set-offs, that to fifth bay removed to make way for later addition, now demolished. First floor: bays 1 to 6 have blocked original windows under continuous drip mould. Windows to fourth and fifth bays have iron glazing bars. Roof pitch made less steep. Interior: originally floored, now open to roof. Blocked first floor doorway to west end, first floor fireplace at south-east corner. Arch brace collar and tie beam roof with 2 levels of purlins. 'North Yorkshire County Council, County Planning Department, Historical Account'.

Gatehouse. c 1426-51. For Archbishop Kempe. Magnesian limestone ashlar with stone slate roof to oriel windows otherwise roof concealed by parapet. 3 storeys, 1 bay. North front: full height, narrow angle buttressing with set-offs. Carriage arch with enriched spandrels and drip mould encroached on to right by 2 Thorpe Lane (qv). Canted oriel window to first floor with heraldic shields to panelled base. Traceried windows with leaded lights. Roof has ornamental cresting. Blocked 2-light flat-arched window to second floor under drip mould. Coved cornice and parapet. Original stair turret with slit windows projects above main roof level. Rear: 4-centred pedestrian archway to left and 4-centred carriage archway to right, both contained under large segmental arch with cornice. First floor band with heraldic shields and capping. Centre 3 shields project slightly to support oriel window of 3 traceried lights, with 4-centred head. Ornamental cresting to roof. To second floor: 2-light window with small leaded panes and traceried heads under drip mould. Angle buttresses with set-offs rise from heraldic band to support coving and parapet. Octagonal stone chimneys to each side. Interior: carriageway has tierceron vaulting. 4-centred doorway to stairs. One original oak door is lying on its side in carriageway. Upper floors not inspected. Pevsner, N., North Yorkshire, The West Riding, 1979, p160. `North Yorkshire County Council, County Planning Department, Historical Account'. (9)

Centred at SE 574 377, the remains of Cawood Castle, an archiepiscopal palace, were surveyed at 1:2500 scale directly onto a SUSI copy of the current OS 25" map as part of the RCHME Cawood Survey. The original 1:2500 plan and field account (level 2) are held in the NMR archive.

There is no trace above ground of any of the internal structures of the palace; the village of Cawood (SE 53 NE 19) has been encroaching on the site for many years, and the interior is now occupied by modern housing and roads. The only surviving buildings are the three-storey gatehouse of Magnesian Limestone built by Archbishop Kempe (1426-52) and, attached to its SE side, a contemporary two-storey range of brick with stone dressings, traditionally called a Banqueting Hall; these are situated on the SW side of the former palace at SE 57403768. In 1987 they were restored by the Landmark Trust, when farm buildings abutting the N side of the hall were removed. Around the NW, adjoining the culverted Bishop Dike (SE 53 NE 22 - LINEAR 212), and the NE sides, alongside Old Road, are fragments of the stone-built precinct wall, up to 3 m high, but in general 3-4 courses high, which are incorporated into later brick walls defining property boundaries. At SE 57498 37741, during building work, a stone buttress was discovered on the line of a modern brick wall and almost immediately covered over; its position below the present pavement of Old Road, was pointed out by Mrs Lambert (10a) who was present when the find was made. From the above information, and assuming that Old Road follows the line of the E precinct wall, and the palace was enclosed within a wall measuring 107 m NE-SW by about 105 m transversely. (10)

The results of the RCHME fieldwork, with the addition of full documentary research into the history of Cawood including that of the palace, have been published. The earliest reference to archiepiscopalian occupation at Cawood is 1181; the precise date for the building of the palace is unknown, but from the early 13th to mid 16th centuries references to it are common. During that period many archbishops altered and improved the palace in various ways. In 1531 it was in a poor state, and by the early 17th century most of the land, including Castle Garth, had been leased out. At the time of the Civil War, an attempt was made to fortify the palace despite the fact that it was then ruinous; an early 18th century engraving shows extensive ranges of buildings, but these were perhaps largely removed in 1750 during demolition work. (11)

SE 5738 3757. Cawood Castle and Castle Garth: residence of the medieval Archbishops of York and associated enclosure containing gardens, five fishponds and a quarry pit. Scheduled RSM No 20539. (see also SE 53 NE 20) (12)

In October 2005, the Castle Garth was re-surveyed at 1:1000 scale by English Heritage, primarily as a training exercise in support of a community-based research and conservation project. A rapid review of the evidence for the proposed development of the village was also carried out. The investigation essentially confirms the findings of Sources 10 and 11, while adding a number of significant details to the plan of the Garth. The survey and a brief report are available from the NMR. (15)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" map, 1958
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Source Number : 2
Source : The Victoria history of the county of York, volume two
Source details :
Page(s) : 48
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Source Number : 10a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Mrs Lambert (oral, 28-NOV-1989)
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Source Number : 11
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Blood K and Taylor C C. 1992. "Cawood: an Archiepiscopal Landscape" in Yorkshire Archaeological Journal vol 64 83-102
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Source Number : 12
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : English Heritage SAM Amendment North Yorkshire 12-OCT-1994
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Source Number : 13
Source : Oblique aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR SE5737/22 (12064/36) 03-MAR-1991
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Source Number : 14
Source : Oblique aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR SE5737/26 (12356/07) 31-OCT-1992
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Source Number : 15
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : English Heritage: Cawood Castle Garth survey
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Source : Castle Garth, Cawood/ink survey
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Source : Cawood Castle
Source details :
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Source Number : 3
Source : Yorkshire : the West Riding
Source details :
Page(s) : 160
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Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : DOE (IAM) AMs England and Wales 1961 113
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Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : E C Waight/01-MAY-1963/Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Field Investigator
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Source Number : 6
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : B H Pritchard/07-JAN-1975/Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Field Investigator
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Source Number : 7
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Speight H. 190. Lower Wharfedale 25, 30-34, 40-44, photos, illus
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Source Number : 8
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the Islands. Volume II : Norfolk-Yorkshire and the islands
Source details :
Page(s) : 515, 536
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Source Number : 9
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : District of Selby, 05/11/1984
Page(s) : 16-17
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Source Number : 10
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Keith Blood and Philip Sinton/29-NOV-1989/RCHME: Cawood Survey
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 1540
Monument Start Date : 1066
Monument Type : Precinct Wall, Structure
Evidence :
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 1199
Monument Start Date : 1100
Monument Type : Archbishops Palace
Evidence : Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 1388
Monument Start Date : 1374
Monument Type : Quadrangular Castle, Archbishops Palace
Evidence : Earthwork, Demolished Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 1451
Monument Start Date : 1426
Monument Type : Banqueting House, Gatehouse
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : 1750
Monument End Date : 1750
Monument Start Date :
Monument Type : Archbishops Palace
Evidence : Demolished Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : NY 126
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 20539
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 325885
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 325886
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 43163
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (North Yorkshire)
External Cross Reference Number : 9699.022
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SE 53 NE 2
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 972362
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 974990
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 972607
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 972391
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 522739
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SE 53 NE 2
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1963-05-01
End Date : 1963-05-01
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SE 53 NE 2
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1975-01-07
End Date : 1975-01-07
Associated Activities : Primary, CAWOOD CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1985-01-01
End Date : 1987-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: CAWOOD SURVEY
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1989-11-22
End Date : 1989-11-29
Associated Activities : Primary, CAWOOD CASTLE GARTH
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CAWOOD CASTLE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, INVESTIGATION BY RCHME/EH ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1995-11-14
End Date : 1995-11-14
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: VALE OF YORK NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 1998-01-06
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BRANSBY HOUSE, SHERBURN STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CAWOOD CASTLE GARTH
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: CAWOOD CASTLE GARTH
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CAWOOD CASTLE GARTH
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31