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Historic England Research Records

Stocking Abbey

Hob Uid: 57386
Location :
North Yorkshire
Ryedale
Oldstead
Grid Ref : SE5320180302
Summary : Fourth, transitional, site of the community of Savigniac, later Cistercian, monks that was to eventually settle at Byland Abbey (UID 56808). In 1147 Roger de Mowbray allowed the community to move from (Old) Byland (57069), giving them 'two carucates of waste land in the territory of Cukwald (Coxwold) below the hill of Blakhou.' This is elsewhere called Stocking or Oldstead, and a likely site for the temporary abbey is Oldstead Hall in the parish of Kilburn, although this is by no means conclusive. Here they cleared the ground and built a small stone church, a cloister and other buildings and offices at the same time as preparing for the move to their fifth and final home at Byland in 1177. Robert Dayville, lord of Kilburn, asserted that they had inclosed part of his vill and to settle the dispute a boundary dyke (57382) was constructed.
More information : A monastery was built at Stocking in 1147 on land granted to the Cistercian (formerly Savigniac) monks who moved from (Old) Byland (SE 58 NE 16). Whilst at Stocking the monks began clearing and draining swampy and overgrown land near Whitaker which had been included in their grant. This was to be the site of their new abbey of Byland (SE 57 NW 1), where they moved in 1177. (1)

In 1147 Roger de Mowbray gave the monks at Old Byland 'two carucates of waste land in the territory of Cukwald (Coxwold) below the hill of Blakhou.' This is elsewhere called Stocking. Here they cleared the ground and built a small stone church, a cloister and other buildings and offices. Robert Dayville, lord of Kilburn, asserted that they had inclosed part of his vill and to settle the dispute a boundary dyke (SE 58 SW 37) was constructed. (2-3)

There are more than a dozen 'Stocking' names within ten miles of Byland, but none fulfils the condition of being in the 'western part of the territory of Coxwold' as stated by Dugdale (4a). McDonnell considers the mention of 'veterem locum' or 'old stead' in documents relating to the site as significant, and says a possible site for the settlement may be at Oldstead Hall (SE 532 803) where fragments of medieval tile and masonry have been dug up in the grounds. However, against this suggestion is the fact that Oldstead Hall is low-lying in swampy land. (4)

Stocking was the Byland community's fourth home after Calder (NY 00 NE 9), Hood (SE 58 SW 32) and (Old) Byland (SE 58 NE 16). The Byland Abbey foundation history, written by Philip, the third abbot, at the end of the 12th century, refers to the site as 'Altsteed' or 'Stocking'; it is conventionally identified with either the present day Oldstead or Oldstead Grange in the parish of Kilburn. It appears that it was only ever intended as yet another temporary home, however, for the foundation narrative records that once there the monks (ie lay brothers) soon began to prepare a new site 'between Whiteker and the foot of the hill of Cam' (ie Byland: SE 57 NW 1), to which the choir monks finally removed on 30 October 1177 (5a). Geophysical survey by the University of Bradford in 1994 revealed traces of what could be a series of buildings arranged around a courtyard at Oldstead Hall (5b), but the claim that this represents the site of the community whilst at Stocking is by no means conclusive. That said, the fact that Oldstead Hall lies in a low-lying, swampy position, as observed by authority 4, is probably no reason not to equate the site with Stocking, for Cistercian abbeys were often founded in such locations.

Researched from documentary evidence as part of the EH: Byland Abbey Survey. See report (5c) in the NMR for further details and discussion. (5)


Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Md Relig Houses 1971 114 117 125 (D Knowles & R N Hadcock)
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Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : VCH Yorks 3 1913 132
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Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Byland Abbey - MOW Guide 1952 3-4 (C Peers)
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Source Number : 4
Source : Ryedale historian
Source details : J McDonnell
Page(s) : 46-7
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Vol(s) : 5
Source Number : 4a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Mon Angl 1859 (Dugdale)
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Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : Marcus Jecock/25-OCT-2010/EH: Byland Abbey Survey
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Source Number : 5A
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Burton, J 2006, The Foundation History of the Abbeys of Byland and Jervaulx (York: Borthwick Institute), 9-18 and 34
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Source Number : 5B
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Aspinall, A, McDonnell, G and Vernon, R W, nd, Investigation of Medieval Sites by Geophysical Survey: Report on the Oldstead Hall Survey, nr Byland Abbey, North Yorkshire (Univ Bradford Dept Archaeol Sci, unpublished report)
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Source Number : 5C
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Jecock, M, Burn, A, Brown, G and Oswald, A 2011, Byland Abbey, Ryedale, North Yorkshire: Archaeological Survey and Investigation of Part of the Precinct and Extra-Mural Area (RDRS 4-2011), 15-17 and 76
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Extant
Monument End Date : 1177
Monument Start Date : 1147
Monument Type : Cistercian Monastery, Church, Cloister
Evidence : Documentary Evidence

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SE 58 SW 41
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 57371
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 57382
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 56808
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 57069
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 8654
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: BYLAND ABBEY SURVEY
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31