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Historic England Research Records

Eboracum

Hob Uid: 58143
Location :
York
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : SE6031452134
Summary : Legionary Fortress built AD 71, rebuilt in stone AD 107-8.
More information : SE603521 The Legionary Fortress at York was built on the North East Bank of the River Ouse in AD 71 to house the 9th Legion. It occupied an area of 50 acres and included barracks and other buildings including a bathhouse and principia. The fortress was rebuilt in stone in AD 107-8. In the C4th York became the military base of the Dux Brittaniarum, the headquarters of the northern region.

Excavations during 1925-7 and 1955-6 revealed three sides of the earth ant timber defences of the first fortress of Flavian date, and there can now be no doubt that the outline remained unchanged. Some rebuilding ocurred in the Agricolan period, and rebuilding in stone was commenced in 108-9, but the curtain wall may not have been completed until Hadrian's reign. Further rebuilding was necessary after the temporary withdrawal of troops at the end of the 2nd century, and again in 296. (1-3)

In 1975 various excavations were undertaken on the defences and interna buildings of the legionary fortress. In davygate, (SE603519) walls were revealed which had apparently belonged to the barracks in the south corner of the fortress. Examination of an area of the Praetentura behind Blake Street (SE601520) revealed timber buildings of ca. 70-80, succeeded by buildings of post-construction with mortar floors. These were relaced by a cobbled street flanked by stone buildings. These were replaced by a cobbled street flanked by stone buildings. Those on the SW may have been barracks at the front of the Praetentura; those to the NE possibly part of the Tribune's house. (4)

It is possible that there was Roman base at York in the pre-Flavian period. The number of dateable finds for this period is considerable, but no other site in the territory of the Brigantes is known to have been occupied at such an early date and York could hardly have stood on its own.

York was certainly occupied in the governorship of Petillius cerealis 71-4, but there is some uncertainty as to the nature of the garrison. It has been thought that Legio IX Hispana built a fortress of about 50 acres at this time but so far the rampart dating to this period has not been located on all four sides. The first site may therefore have been of less than full legionary size.

During Agricola's governorship the defences were refurbished, and certainly from this date the fortress was established. It formed a ectangle 159' x 1370' encompassing circa 50 acres. Epigraphic evidence shows that the gateways, and probably the whole wall, was being rebuilt in stne ca 107-8. (5)

Eboracum - The Roman legionary fortress and Colonia at York. (6)

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Source Number : 1
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Roman and Anglian York Historical Map and Guide 1988 YAT RCHME OS
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Source Number : 2
Source : The towns of Roman Britain
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Page(s) : 167-188
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Source : RCHME: Timber Tower, Legionary Fortress, section Bi
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Source : RCHME: Defences at and near East Angle, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Timber Tower and Probable Agricolan Defences Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: North-West Gate, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: St Leonard's Place Wall, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress: Ditch System, section Fiii
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Source : RCHME: South-East Defences at the Bedern, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Interval Tower South West 5, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Constantian Defences, York
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Source : RCHME: Intervallum Building Wall, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source Number : 3
Source : A history of Yorkshire: the city of York
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Page(s) : 324-30
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Interval Tower South-West 5, York
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Source : RCHME: Comaparative plans of store Buildings in the Intervallum Area, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Defences adjacent to East Angle Tower At (R), York
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Source : RCHME: Defences At (B), Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Defences at B, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Severan Defences, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Intervallum Building Wall, York
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Source : RCHME: Roman Walling, York Minster, York
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Source : RCHME: South West Gate, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Rampart in Coney Street, York
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Source Number : 4
Source : Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies
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Page(s) : 314-5
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Vol(s) : 7, 1976
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Bank behind Tower NW5(6), York
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Source : RCHME: North-West Tower 1a, York
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Source : RCHME: Roman York, The Fortress, Roman Roads, Tesselated Pavements, Burials, York
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Source : RCHME: North-West Defences at (N), Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Stone Tower SW 3 and Intervallum, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, North-West Defences at (N), York
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Source : RCHME: Roman York
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Source : RCHME: Tower North-West 5, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Interval Tower SW 5, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Severan Defences, Legionary Fortress, York
Source details : ROMAN YORK
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Source Number : 5
Source : British Archaeological Report (BAR) British series
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Page(s) : 186-7
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Vol(s) : 21, 1975
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Source : RCHME: Barrack Walls and Floors, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Plan showing 1st Century remains near West Angle, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, St Leonard's Place Wall, York
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Source : RCHME: Defences near West Angle Tower, Legionary Fortress, York, section Fii
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Source : RCHME: Raised Footwalk of Intervallum Road, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Vaulted Tower 1a, York
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Source : RCHME: Defences adjacent to East Angle Tower, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Remains of Barracks S/R in the Praetentura, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Key Plan, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Defences at and near East Angle, York
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Source Number : 6
Source : The place-names of Roman Britain
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Page(s) : 355-7
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Constantian Defences, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Defences at C in Coney Street, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Raised Footwalk of Intervallum Road, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Defences near East Angle, York
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Source : RCHE: Legionary Fortress, Barracks S, Q, R, York/
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Source : RCHME: Remains of Via Decumana and Colonnade under Treasurers House, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Bishophill Senior Excavation, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Reconsruction of Ditches, York
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Source : RCHME: Rampart at C in Coney Street, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, South-East Defences at the Bedern, York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, West Angle, York
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Source : RCHME: Constantian Defences, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Stone Towers on North-West Side, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: South Angle, Legionary Fortress, York
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Source : RCHME: Roman York
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Source : RCHME: Legionary Fortress, Constantian Wall Under St Leonard's Hospital, York
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Built 71
Monument End Date : 71
Monument Start Date : 71
Monument Type : Legionary Fortress
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SE 65 SW 1
External Cross Reference Notes :

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Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, THE PUBLIC LIBRARY (REAR)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date :
End Date :
Associated Activities : Primary, MARTIN'S BANK, DAVY HALL, DAVYGATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1958-01-01
End Date : 1958-12-31
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Start Date : 1970-01-01
End Date : 1971-12-31
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Associated Activities : Primary, ALDWARK
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1971-01-01
End Date : 1971-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK MINSTER
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1972-01-01
End Date : 1975-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, MUSEUM STREET/LENDAL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1972-01-01
End Date : 1972-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE BEDERN, SOUTH-WEST
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1973-01-01
End Date : 1981-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FRIENDS' BURIAL GROUND, BISHOPHILL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1973-01-01
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End Date : 1976-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BOOTHAM BAR TOILETS
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Associated Activities : Primary, ST LEONARD'S HOSPICE
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End Date : 1979-12-31
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Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
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Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
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Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1998-01-01
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Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
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