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Historic England Research Records

St Marylebone Workhouse

Hob Uid: 1454454
Location :
Greater London Authority
City of Westminster
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : TQ2810081900
Summary : St Marylebone Workhouse was a parish workhouse built along Northumberland Street between 1775 and 1776. It could accommodate 1,000 inmates and cost £18,770 to construct. The architect was Alexander Allen, a local Guardian of the Poor. There had previously been a workhouse in St Marylebone dating back to 1730. The new workhouse building was two storeys high comprising a main block running north-south along Northumberland Street, with separate blocks at each end running east-west. In 1792, a new infirmary block accommodating 300 patients was built. The workhouse buildings were gradually expanded, including the addition of a new boy's school in 1827. In 1846, two 'nightly asylums', similar to casual wards, were built for male and female vagrants. The famine in Ireland was reaching its peak at this time, which led to St Marylebone, with a considerable Irish Community, being stretched to its limits with 2,264 inmates. In 1867, St Marylebone was forced to come under scope of the 1834 Poor Law Amendment Act. Casual wards designed by H Saxon Snell were built, and adorned with extracts from the bible on the walls. Inmates were given the tasks of cleaning the ward, picking oakum or breaking stones. A new board-room, offices and female aged and infirm wards were also added. In 1878, a new casual ward block was built. Further workhouse accommodation was designed by H Saxon Snell and Sons in 1888. The workhouse accommodated 1,600 at this time. Several additions were built between 1897 and 1901. Between 1914 and 1915, the casual ward block housed Belgian refugees, and then from 1918 to 1921, it provided military barracks. After 1930, it was renamed St Marylebone Institution. During the Second World War, some of the blocks were used as a recreation centre for civil defence workers and following the war as a transit centre for displaced persons. In 1949, it was renamed Luxborough Lodge. It closed in 1965, and was demolished and replaced by the London Polytechnic and flats.
More information : St Marylebone Workhouse was a parish workhouse built along Northumberland Street between 1775 and 1776. It could accommodate 1,000 inmates and cost £18,770 to construct. The architect was Alexander Allen, a local Guardian of the Poor. It replaced a previous parish workhouse at the southern end of Northumberland Street (now Luxborough Street), although there had been an even earlier workhouse in St Marylebone dating to 1730. The new workhouse building was two storeys high and comprised a main block running north-south along Northumberland Street, with separate blocks at each end running east-west. In 1786, a chapel was added at the west, to complete a quadrangle. In 1792, a new infirmary block accommodating 300 patients was built to the north-west. The workhouse buildings were gradually expanded and could accommodate 1449 inmates by 1843. A new boy's school, built in 1827, was among the many additions. In 1846, two 'nightly asylums', similar to casual ward blocks, were built for male and female vagrants. The famine in Ireland was reaching its peak at this time, which led to St Marylebone, with a considerable Irish Community, being stretched to its limits with 2,264 inmates. [1-3]

In 1867, St Marylebone was forced to come under scope of the 1834 Poor Law Amendment Act, to which it had previously avoided. This led to the addition of casual wards designed by H Saxon Snell in 1868. These were adorned with extracts from the bible on the walls. Inmates were given the task of cleaning the ward, picking oakum or breaking stones. A new board-room, offices and female aged and infirm wards were also added. In 1878, a new three-storey casual ward block, providing individual cells was built. Further workhouse accommodation was designed by H Saxon Snell and Sons in 1888 and the workhouse accommodated 1,600 at this time. Several new buildings were built between 1897 and 1901 including a new administrative block with features retained from the old one. Between 1914 and 1915, the casual ward block housed Belgian refugees, and then from 1918 to 1921, it provided military barracks. After 1930, the workhouse was renamed St Marylebone Institution. During the Second World War, some of the blocks were used as a recreation centre for civil defence workers and following the war as a transit centre for displaced persons. In 1949, it was renamed Luxborough Lodge. It closed in 1965, and the inmates were dispersed to accommodation elsewhere. All the buildings were demolished and replaced by the London Polytechnic and flats. [1-3]

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Oral information, correspondence (not archived) or staff comments
Source details : Uncatalogued Archive File - Workhouses 101046
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : World Wide Web page
Source details : Higginbotham, Peter. 2006. The Workhouse. [Accessed 27-APR-2007]
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : The Workhouse: a study of Poor Law Buildings in England
Source details :
Page(s) : 106-111, 119, 216
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Georgian
Display Date : Built between 1775 and 1776
Monument End Date : 1776
Monument Start Date : 1775
Monument Type : Workhouse
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Georgian
Display Date : Chapel added 1786
Monument End Date : 1786
Monument Start Date : 1786
Monument Type : Workhouse, Chapel
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : First World War
Display Date : Change of use 1914-1915
Monument End Date : 1915
Monument Start Date : 1914
Monument Type : Refugee Housing, Workhouse, Chapel, Infirmary, School, Office
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Mid 20th Century
Display Date : Change of use 1945-1949
Monument End Date : 1949
Monument Start Date : 1945
Monument Type : Refugee Housing, Public Assistance Institution
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Mid 20th Century
Display Date : Change of use 1949
Monument End Date : 1949
Monument Start Date : 1949
Monument Type : Public Assistance Institution
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Mid 20th Century
Display Date : Closed and demolished 1965
Monument End Date : 1965
Monument Start Date : 1965
Monument Type : Public Assistance Institution
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Second World War
Display Date : CHANGE OF USE DURING WWII
Monument End Date : 1945
Monument Start Date : 1939
Monument Type : Recreation Centre, Public Assistance Institution
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Georgian
Display Date : Infirmary built 1792
Monument End Date : 1792
Monument Start Date : 1792
Monument Type : Workhouse, Chapel, Infirmary
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Georgian
Display Date : School added 1827
Monument End Date : 1827
Monument Start Date : 1827
Monument Type : Workhouse, Chapel, Infirmary, School
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Victorian
Display Date : Casual ward built 1846
Monument End Date : 1846
Monument Start Date : 1846
Monument Type : Workhouse, Chapel, Infirmary, School, Casual Ward Block
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Victorian
Display Date : Casual wards and offices built 1868
Monument End Date : 1868
Monument Start Date : 1868
Monument Type : Workhouse, Chapel, Infirmary, School, Casual Ward Block, Office
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Victorian
Display Date : New casual wards built 1878
Monument End Date : 1878
Monument Start Date : 1878
Monument Type : Workhouse, Chapel, Infirmary, School, Casual Ward Block, Office
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Victorian
Display Date : Accommodation block built 1888
Monument End Date : 1888
Monument Start Date : 1888
Monument Type : Workhouse, Chapel, Infirmary, School, Casual Ward Block, Office
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Victorian
Display Date : More accommodation added 1897-1901
Monument End Date : 1901
Monument Start Date : 1897
Monument Type : Workhouse, Chapel, Infirmary, School, Casual Ward Block, Office
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Early 20th Century
Display Date : Change of use 1918-1921
Monument End Date : 1921
Monument Start Date : 1918
Monument Type : Barracks, Workhouse, Chapel, Infirmary, School, Office
Evidence : Demolished Building, Documentary Evidence

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 101046
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : TQ 28 SE 805
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1454621
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: WORKHOUSES PROJECT
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, INVESTIGATION BY RCHME/EH ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1995-11-14
End Date : 1995-11-14