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Historic England Research Records

Street House

Hob Uid: 611709
Location :
Redcar And Cleveland
Redcar And Cleveland
Loftus
Grid Ref : NZ7365019600
Summary : An Early Neolithic cairn and mortuary structure overlain by an Early Bronze Age round barrow. Excavated in 1979-81, a shallow plough-damaged earthwork circa 6 metres in diameter proved to represent a multiphase Neolithic funerary/mortuary monument. An east-facing timber facade fronted a narrow mortuary structure set between low banks of clay and stone. Behind the mortuary structure was a sub-rectangular enclosure defined by a stone kerb and containing two paved areas. The latter is interpreted as a mortuary enclosure, used for the initial laying out of the dead prior to deposition within the mortuary structure itself. The latter contained the fragmentary burnt remains of several individuals. The facade comprised near-contiguous timber posts. The largest at the centre, directly in front of the mortuary structure (another post setting occurred at its rear). Most of the Neolithic pottery recovered came from the upper fills of this facade trench. In front of the facade were traces of two rows of post holes, possibly representing an avenue approach or other structure. Radiocarbon dates suggest that the monument was constructed in the early to mid 4th millennium BC. Subsequently, the whole monument was converted into a single low trapezoidal cairn by the extension of the mortuary enclosure kerb as far as the facade, and the addition of cairn material over the whole monument behind the facade. The timber elements were burnt, and subsequently unburnt timbers were removed. In the Early Bronze Age, funerary or related practices immediately preceded the construction of a kerbed round barrow over the eastern half of the long cairn. Despite plough-damage, four collared urns and an accessory vessel represented secondary cremations inserted into the mound. Two of the collared urns were associated with Grooved Ware sherds. A deposit of circa 20 jet buttons was inserted into the tail end of the long cairn. The flint assemblage included some possibly Mesolithic items.
More information : NZ 7635 1960 Street House. Excavation of this site from 1979-81 uncovered the following:

1. A Neolithic mortuary enclosure with a D-shaped facade with, to the West, a kerbed enclosure containing a paved area. This enclosure was probably used for exposing the bodies before placement in the mortuary enclosure. A C14 date of 2700bc was obtained from the timbers used.

2. After this monument had been used for possibly c.30-50 years it was fired and a cairn was built over the kerbed enclosure and mortuary enclosure.

3. Around 1400 years later a round barrow was thrown up over the cairn covering charcoal which gave a C14 date of 3360bp. This charcoal may represent the remains of a funeral pyre. Cup marked stones were used in the kerb of the round cairn and various flint implements were also recovered. Full excavation report. (1)


Discussion of possible cultural continuity. Also the C14 dates are revised, adding c.300 years to both features. (2)


Additional references. (3)(4)(5)(6)


Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society
Source details : Vyner, B. The Excavation of a Neolithic Cairn at Street House, Loftus, Cleveland.
Page(s) : 151-195
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 50, 1984
Source Number : 2
Source : Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society
Source details : Vyner, B. The Street House Wossit: The Excavation of a Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Palisaded Ritual Monument at Street House, Loftus, Cleveland.
Page(s) : 173-202
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 54, 1988
Source Number : 3
Source : The Yorkshire archaeological journal
Source details : (D Barcham)
Page(s) : 01-May
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 54, 1982
Source Number : 4
Source : Recent excavations in Cleveland
Source details :
Page(s) : Jan-17
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1983
Source Number : 5
Source : Current archaeology
Source details :
Page(s) : 342-3
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 94, 1984
Source Number : 6
Source : Non-megalithic long barrows and allied structures in the British Neolithic
Source details : Kinnes, I, 1992, Non-Megalithic Long Barrows and Allied Structures in the British Neolithic, British Museum Occ Paper 52, 44
Page(s) : 44
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : no.52

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Mesolithic
Display Date : Mesolithic
Monument End Date : -4000
Monument Start Date : -10000
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Early Neolithic
Display Date : Early Neolithic
Monument End Date : -3300
Monument Start Date : -4000
Monument Type : Mortuary Enclosure, Long Cairn, Timber Avenue, Pit
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit, Earthwork, Conjectural Evidence
Monument Period Name : Late Neolithic
Display Date : Late Neolithic
Monument End Date : -2200
Monument Start Date : -2900
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Early Bronze Age
Display Date : Early Bronze Age
Monument End Date : -1600
Monument Start Date : -2600
Monument Type : Round Barrow, Cup Marked Stone
Evidence : Earthwork, Find

Components and Objects:
Period : Mesolithic
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type : LITHIC IMPLEMENT
Object Material : Flint
Period : Early Neolithic
Component Monument Type : Mortuary Enclosure, Long Cairn, Timber Avenue, Pit
Object Type : CREMATION, VESSEL, LEAF ARROWHEAD
Object Material : Pottery, Flint
Period : Late Neolithic
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type : VESSEL, DISCOIDAL KNIFE
Object Material : Pottery, Flint
Period : Early Bronze Age
Component Monument Type : Round Barrow, Cup Marked Stone
Object Type : CREMATION, VESSEL, BUTTON
Object Material : Pottery, Jet

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NZ 71 NW 14
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 611713
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : STREET HOUSE, LOFTUS
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1979-01-01
End Date : 1981-12-31