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Historic England Research Records

Ayton Castle

Hob Uid: 65095
Location :
North Yorkshire
Scarborough
West Ayton
Grid Ref : SE9881085110
Summary : Remains of a medieval manorial centre and later fortified house complex at Ayton Castle. The site comprises the standing ruins of a fortified house and the earthwork remains of buildings which all lie within a courtyard, a series of wide terraces on the slope above the tower and, in a field to the south, the earthwork remains of a set of fishponds. The main phase of development was a late 12th/13th century manorial complex surrounded by a stone curtain wall with a gatehouse. A tower was added in the late 14th century. By the late 17th century the remains were in use as a byre. The ruined tower represents the only standing remains of the complex. The tower is visible as a ruined building, and the remainder of the site as earthworks on air photographs and was mapped as part of the North York Moors National Mapping Programme. Scheduled.
More information : [SE 98778514] Ayton Castle [NR] (Remains of) (1)

Ayton Castle. A peel-tower with close parallels further north.
Excavated by F C Rimmington 1960-1, when four and possibly five phases were identified:

Phase I. A thick layer of farmyard refuse on which had been built,

Phase II. A manor-house of the late 12th century with which was associated a hoard of iron tools.

Phase III. A complex manor of several separate buildings (including kitchen & dovecote) c.1250, which show evidence of Scottish attack after Bannockburn.

Phase IV. The present 'castle c.1400, built by Ralph Eure partly over one of the buildings of phase III. There is a large amount of
15th-17th century domestic rubbish all round the tower apparently so placed to level the ground.

Phase V. Inferior masonry dating from the late 17th century when the castle had become uninhabited and turned into a cattle byre. (2)

The tower appears to have been enclosed by a stone wall, the turf covered footings of which survive in part. The interior is generally hummocky, but the remains of several buildings are discernible; none, however, can be identified with any particular phase. See photographs. Published earthworks and fishponds at SE 98918507 revised. (3)

Ayton Castle. Full excavation (1958-61), architectural and historical report (Plans 1 & 4) including surrounding earthworks (Plans 2 & 3). Finds from the excavation are in Scarborough Museum. (4)

A resistivity survey at Ayton Castle in 1966-67 detected a massive wall on the south (river) side of the existing building, other buildings close to those excavated in 1958-61 and also in the east corner of the enclosure. The lead pipe excavated in 1958-61 was shown to continue in the direction of the east corner of the enclosure for at least 100 ft. Plan 5. (5)

SE 987851. Ayton Castle. Scheduled. (6)

Ayton Castle. Late 14th century. A tower house with evidence of a surrounding wall. Now in ruins. Stone and originally of three storeys with corbelled parapet. The ground floor consists of two rooms both with pointed and ribbed barrel vaults and lighted by narrowsquare headed windows deeply splayed. The angles were machiolated below the parapet. Rectangular on plan. Grade 1. (7)

Listed by Cathcart King. (10)

The Medieval Pele Tower and associated settlement are visible as a ruined building and earthworks on air photographs, centred at SE 9881 8511. The earthwork elements are defined by buildings, a dovecote, a lime kiln, terraced ground, a hollow way (which may be later in date), boundary banks and a platform. To the immediate south-east east of Ayton Castle are the earthwork remains of medieval fishponds with an associated leat, dam and banks. Elements of the earthworks appear to have been damaged by a modern trackway. A potential pond or extractive pit is visible as a shallow earthwork to the north of the settlement, which may be associated or may be later in date. The features are extant on the latest 2009 vertical photography.
(11-13)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : Ordnance Survey 6" 1930
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Source Number : 2
Source : Medieval archaeology : journal of the Society for Medieval Archaeology
Source details :
Page(s) : 37-8
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 06-Jul
Source Number : 11
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : Next Perspectives PGA Tile Ref: SE9885 24-MAY-2009
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Source Number : 12
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR OS/94387B 161 24-NOV-1994
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Source Number : 13
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR RAF/106G/UK/1032 3225 27-NOV-1945
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Source Number : 3
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : First OS Archaeology Field Investigator 01/05/1968
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Source Number : 4
Source : Scarborough Archaeological and Historical Society research reports
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Vol(s) : 5
Source Number : 5
Source : Transactions of the Scarborough Archaeological and Historical Society
Source details :
Page(s) : 64-71
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 11
Source Number : 6
Source : List of ancient monuments in England: Volume 1, Northern England; Volume 2, Southern England; Volume 3, East Anglia and the Midlands
Source details : DOE (IAM) Ancient Monuments in England and Wales 1 1978 p 64
Page(s) : 64
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Vol(s) : 1
Source Number : 7
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : District of Scarborough 18/01/1967
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Source Number : 8
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : English Heritage Schedule Entry 14/02/1997
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Source Number : 9
Source : The Victoria history of the county of York, North Riding, volume two
Source details :
Page(s) : 441
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Source Number : 10
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the Islands. Volume II : Norfolk-Yorkshire and the islands
Source details :
Page(s) : 513
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Medieval
Monument End Date : 1540
Monument Start Date : 1066
Monument Type : Manor House, Settlement, Bank (Earthwork), Boundary Bank, Pond, Building, Dovecote, Lime Kiln, Ditch, Dam, Pele Tower, Terraced Ground, Hollow Way, Fishpond, Leat, Platform
Evidence : Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Late C12
Monument End Date : 1199
Monument Start Date : 1167
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : C13
Monument End Date : 1299
Monument Start Date : 1200
Monument Type : Manor House, Service Wing, Dovecote, Gatehouse, Wall, Kitchen
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Late C14
Monument End Date : 1399
Monument Start Date : 1367
Monument Type : Pele Tower
Evidence : Ruined Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Late C17
Monument End Date : 1699
Monument Start Date : 1667
Monument Type : Cow House
Evidence : Ruined Building

Components and Objects:
Period : Medieval
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type :
Object Material : Iron

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : NY 144
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 28295
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 327062
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 78044
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (N Yorks Moors National Park)
External Cross Reference Number : 3745
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SE 98 NE 35
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, AYTON CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1958-01-01
End Date : 1961-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SE 98 NE 35
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1968-05-01
End Date : 1968-05-01
Associated Activities : Primary, AYTON CASTLE
Activity type : MANAGEMENT SURVEY
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: NORTH YORK MOORS NATIONAL PARK NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2010-06-01
End Date : 2011-05-01