HeritageGateway - Home
Site Map
Text size: A A A
You are here: Home > > > > Historic England research records Result
Historic England research recordsPrintable version | About Historic England research records

Historic England Research Records

Monument Number 837731

Hob Uid: 837731
Location :
Greater London Authority
City Of Westminster, Kensington And Chelsea
Grid Ref : TQ2703080400
Summary : Ornamental ha ha defining the eastern edge of Kensington Gardens. It was probably begun in the late 1720s but was completed in 1730-31 by Charles Bridgeman as part of his "walk of shade" around the perimeter of the Gardens as a whole. The ha ha was constructed in three straight sections, of varying lengths, defining the 1.1km eastern boundary of Kensington Gardens from near Buckhill Gate in the north to near Mount Gate in the south. It crossed the Long Water on an embankment now replaced by the Serpentine Bridge. There were two earthworks making up the ha ha, one on each side of and parallel to Buckhill Walk. On the eastern side, the ha ha proper comprised a continuous ditch, its vertical inner face revetted in brick and stone and backed by an earthen bank. At each change of angle, the revetment was carried round to form large curving mock bastions, each of which varied slightly in size and form, giving the ha ha a military appearance. Alongside Buck Hill Walk on the west ran a simple earthen bank, the western earthwork, which appears to be omitted from all plans of the period. With avenues of trees along both earthworks a cool shaded atmosphere was created. In 1833-4 the South Bastion was demolished and the course of the ha ha south of the the Long Water altered. In 1868 it was completely infilled as part of alterations associated with the construction of the Albert Memorial (see TQ 27 NE 79) but its approximate course is preserved in the line of West Carriage Drive. North of the Long Water the neglected ha ha was robbed for building materials in the later 19th century and partially infilled in 1916. However, its earthworks survive. The site was surveyed by RCHME field staff in 1993.
More information : TQ 2703 8040: an ornamental ha-ha defining the eastern adge of Kensington Gardens was probably begun in the late 1720's but was completed in 1730-31 by Charles Bridgeman as part of his "walk of shade" around the perimeter of the Gardens as a whole (2). The ha-ha was constructed in three straight sections, of varying lengths, defining the 1.1km eastern boundary of Kensington Gardens from near Buckhill Gate in the north to near Mount Gate in the south. It crossed the Long Water on an embankment now replaced by the Serpentine Bridge.

There were two earthworks making up the ha-ha, one on each side of and parallel to Buckhill Walk. On the eastern side, the ha-ha proper comprised a continuous ditch, its vertical inner face revetted in brick and stone and backed by an earthen bank. At each change of angle, the revetment was carried round to form large curving mock bastions, each of which varied slightly in size and form, giving the ha-ha a military appearance. Alongside Buck Hill Walk on the west ran a simple earthen bank (the western earthwork) which appears to be omitted from all plans of the period. With avenues of trees along both earthworks a cool shaded atmosphere was created.

In 1833-4 the South Bastion was demolished and the course of the ha-ha south of the the Long Water altered. In 1868 it was completely infilled as part of alterations associated with the construction of the Albert Memorial (see TQ 27 NE 79) but its approximate course is preserved in the line of West Carriage Drive. (2a).

North of the Long Water the neglected ha-ha was robbed for building materials in the later 19th-century and partially infilled in 1916 (2a). However, its earthworks survive. For full description of surviving earthworks surveyed by the RCHME in May 93 and survey plans at 1:1000 and 1:2500 scales see associated archive. (1-2)



Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Oswald A W P and Pattison P April-93 RCHME: ROYAL PARKS PROJECT: Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens Survey
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 1a
Source : Aerial photograph
Source details : NMR 44 106G/UK/739 6008 27 Aug 1945)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Land Use Consultants. 1982. Kensington Gardens Historical Survey, 14
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Land Use Consultants. 1982. Kensington Gardens Historical Survey, 22
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2b
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Land Use Consultants. 1982. Kensington Gardens Historical Survey, 12 Bridgeman plan c. 1734 and survey plan c. 1784.
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2c
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Land Use Consultants. 1982. Kensington Gardens Historical Survey, 18
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : Register of parks and gardens of special historic interest in England
Source details : Greater London
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : Part 17
Source Number :
Source : Kensington Gardens, garden earthworks/ink survey
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number :
Source : Kensington Gardens, Buck Hill Walk/ink survey
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number :
Source : Kensington Gardens, Buck Hill Walk/pencil survey
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Constructed late 1720s-1731
Monument End Date : 1731
Monument Start Date : 1727
Monument Type : Ha Ha
Evidence : Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Course altered 1833-34
Monument End Date : 1834
Monument Start Date : 1833
Monument Type : Ha Ha
Evidence : Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Partly infilled 1868
Monument End Date : 1868
Monument Start Date : 1868
Monument Type : Ha Ha
Evidence : Earthwork
Monument Period Name : 20th Century
Display Date : Partially infilled 1916
Monument End Date : 1916
Monument Start Date : 1916
Monument Type : Ha Ha
Evidence : Earthwork

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : TQ 28 SE 98
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : RCHME: ROYAL PARKS PROJECT: HYDE PARK AND KENSINGTON GARDENS SURVEY
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1993-02-01
End Date : 1993-07-01