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Historic England Research Records

Alavna

Hob Uid: 9001
Location :
Cumbria
Allerdale
Maryport
Grid Ref : NY0387037230
Summary : The earthwork remains of a Roman fort forming part of the 2nd century AD frontier defences along the Cumbrian Solway coast. The fort is situated on a sandstone ridge near the cliff edge, it is 140m square and was defended by 4 ditches on the north side and 3 on the south. The fort has been identified with the known Roman place-name "Alavna" or "Alauna". The vicus associated with the fort has been recorded seperately as record 926084: this settlement has been the subject of geophysical survey that has revealed much of its detail.
More information : Centred at NY 0387 3723 are the earthwork remains of Maryport Roman fort. (The history of interpretation of the fort and vicus was recorded only fragmentarily by the Ordnance Survey. The OS number has been retained for the fort - the vicus is now recorded separately (see NY 03 NW 39).
A full archaeological history of the site, including a detailed discussion of the garrison, is dealt with by Jarrett (1a-b) and Birley (1c). The Roman name of the fort is ALAUNA (1d). The known fort is of early Hadrianic foundation circa 122/123 (1b) and excavation by Jarrett and Birley in 1966 in the north-east angle has shown that the fort was occupied until circa 400 or even later (1a).
The earthwork remains were surveyed at 1:500 by RCHME in 1992-3. The west-facing fort platform measures 135m north/south and 139m east/west. The only visible stonework is beside the north gate; the site has been extensively robbed and the majority of the earthworks are as a result of stone-robbing. The ramparts are a maximum of 3.1m high. The positions of angle towers and, on the west side, interval towers are discernable as platforms interrupting the course of the rampart. There are two shallow ditches separated by a low flat-topped bank; their profiles have been altered by re-cutting and ploughing along their length. It is known from 18th century excavations that the headquarters building and the commanding officer's house occupied part of the central range; their positions are marked by a number of low linear scarps. A series of deep robber trenches on the S side of the interior of the fort may be the robbed remains of barrack blocks. The partial remains of furrows and the smoothed appearance of some of the earthworks demonstrate that the interior of the fort has been ploughed.
Full RCHME survey information, including a detailed report, is available in the NMR Archive. (1)

The site is scheduled. (2)

A monograph on Roman Maryport and its environs. (3)

The earthwork remains of the fort have been mapped in basic form from air photographs as part of the Hadrian's Wall National Mapping Project. (4-5)

Between 2000-2004 geophysical survey of Maryport fort and vicus was undertaken by TimeScape Surveys on behalf of the Trustees of Senhouse Museum. Both magnetometry and resistivity surveys were carried out producing a detailed picture of the buried remains, including roads, buildings and related structures. (6)

Maryport is featured on an archaeological map of Hadrian's Wall, published by English Heritage in 2010. (7)

Investigations between 1999 and 2009 are discussed. (8)


Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : Amy Lax/08-JAN-1993/RCHME: Maryport Roman Fort Survey
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Source Number : 1a
Source : Maryport, Cumbria : a Roman Fort and its Garrison
Source details :
Page(s) :
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 22
Source Number : 7
Source : An Archaeological Map of Hadrian's Wall, 1:25,000 scale
Source details :
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Source Number : 8
Source : Hadrian's Wall 1999-2009
Source details : 'A summary of excavation and research prepared for the 13th pilgrimage of Hadrian's Wall, 8-14 August 2009'
Page(s) : 162-3
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Source Number : 1b
Source : The Roman garrisons of Maryport
Source details :
Page(s) : 61
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 87
Source Number : 1c
Source : Research on Hadrian's Wall
Source details :
Page(s) : 216-22
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Source Number : 1d
Source : The place-names of Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 244-5
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Source Number : 2
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 21-Feb-97
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Source Number : 3
Source : Roman Maryport and its setting : essays in memory of Michael G Jarrett
Source details :
Page(s) :
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Vol(s) : vol.28
Source Number : 4
Source : Oblique aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR NY 0337/29 (20147/12) 24-SEP-2004
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Source Number : 5
Source : Oblique aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR NY 0337/11 (13538/3) 01-JAN-1976
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society extra series
Source details : "The Roman fort and vicus at Maryport: geophysical survey, 2000-2004", by J.A.Biggins, D.J.A.Taylor. Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Extra Series. 2004, Vol 31, pages 102-133.
Page(s) : 102-133
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 31, 2004

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : C2
Monument End Date : 199
Monument Start Date : 100
Monument Type : Fort
Evidence : Earthwork

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CM 11
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CM 266
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 27746
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 03 NW 13
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 926084
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : MARYPORT, (ALAVNA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1599-01-01
End Date : 1599-12-31
Associated Activities : MARYPORT, (TRIBUNAL MOUND)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1742-01-01
End Date : 1742-12-31
Associated Activities : MARYPORT, (ALAVNA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1766-01-01
End Date : 1766-12-31
Associated Activities : MARYPORT (ALAVNA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1772-01-01
End Date : 1788-12-31
Associated Activities : MARYPORT, (ALAVNA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1870-01-01
End Date : 1870-12-31
Associated Activities : MARYPORT (ALAVNA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1880-01-01
End Date : 1880-12-31
Associated Activities : MARYPORT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1899-01-01
End Date : 1899-12-31
Associated Activities : MARYPORT (ALAVNA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1966-01-01
End Date : 1966-12-31
Associated Activities : RCHME: MARYPORT FORT SURVEY
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1992-11-01
End Date : 1993-11-01
Associated Activities : MARYPORT (ALAUNA)
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : ENGLISH HERITAGE: HADRIAN'S WALL WHS MAPPING PROJECT, NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : MARYPORT ROMAN FORT
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2003-01-01
End Date : 2003-12-31
Associated Activities : MARYPORT ROMAN FORT (ALUANA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : 'HIGHFIELD', CAMP ROAD
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities : 18/19 THE PROMENADE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2013-01-01
End Date : 2013-12-31