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Derventio Roman Fort

Hob Uid: 9491
Location :
Cumbria
Allerdale
Papcastle
Grid Ref : NY1096031490
Summary : The Roman timber fort of Derventio at Papcastle. It dates from circa AD 80 to 120, and is overlain by the earthwork remains of a larger stone-built Roman fort dating from circa AD 160 to the late 4th century; this was rebuilt in about AD 293-306.
More information : [Centred NY 10963149] Derventio Roman Fort [G.S.] (1)

The Roman fort at Papcastle when excavated in 1912 revealed remains of a late 2nd cent fort (dated by finds of Samian) some 620' x 540', consisting of the N.E. corner tower and north and east walls. A causewayed road led off from a gate in the latter, towards Old Carlisle [NY 24 NE 1]. A further mid-2nd cent. fort (dated by J.P.Bushe-Fox from associated Samian) lying near but not on the lines of the later building, was indicated by wall footings running parallel to the east wall and crossing under the north wall. Earlier finds of pavement and walls were found between the village [Papcastle] and the river [Derwent],(a) and considerable quantities of samian and coins in the village itself. (2)

Pottery evidence indicated continuous occupation from the Flavian period to the end of the 4th century, with a possible break between 120 and 160. The area of the fort is visible on St. Joseph's air photograph. The site was excavated by the Ministry of Works in 1960, no report published to date. (3-4)

Excavation within a limited area were carried out in July 1961 and April-May 1962 on behalf of M.P.B.W. Pottery ranging from AD 130-165, further pieces of figured Samian and a re-used tombstone were found, as were two 3rd and one 4thc. coin. The excavation revealed part of a Barrack Block and the Commandants House but it was not possible to determine the layout of the fort. It is evident from the small objects, coins and pottery found at various times that the history of the site was a long one, but from the structural remains little of it can be established. (5)

Name 'DERVENTIO' accepted for 4th edition R.B.Map. (6)

DERVENTIO - The Roman fort at Papcastle, Cumbria. (7)

NY 10933150 Roman forts at Papcastle and part of the vicus. This monument consists of two superimposed forts and part of the associated civilian settlement. Aerial photography and limited excavations in 1912 and 1961-2, indicate the presence of two successive forts laid out on slightly different alignments and extending over an area of approximately 250m by 200m. The ramparts of the later fort can be seen as a grassy bank up to 1m high on the west, north and east sides. The excavations suggest Papcastle was occupied from the late first century to the late fourth century with a break between c120-160 AD. The second fort was the larger of the two and was built slightly west and south of the former. Excavation prior to the construction of bungalows within the forts uncovered remains of timber barracks of the first fort overlain by the stone barracks of the second fort. The area was subsequently subjected to a thorough levelling and the barracks were rebuilt for a third time between c293 and 306 AD. Evidence for a fourth century commander's house was also located during this excavation. Aerial photography has indicated the location of the west gate of the later fort flanked by guard chambers and an extension or annexe on the fort's western side. The fort lies at the junction of five major Roman roads; scheduled. (8)

The site was inspected and surveyed during the production of 'Time Team', a television programme for Channel 4 in 1998. Two forts are visible in earthwork form. The later fort is almost square and measures 170m NS by 160m EW. In addition to the N and E sides which have been previously identified, the W and S sides can be identified as broad scarps. The site of the south entrance coincides with a modern field entrance. At the NE the remains of an outer ditch are visible. Banks marked on the OS 1:2500 map along the N side and to the W of the main perimeter on the E side are remains of later field boundaries. Within the N half of the interior is an earthwork platform c 20m square overlain by ridge and furrow ploughing, and probably indicates the site of a building. The triangular annexe referred to at the W is more likely to be the remains of the NW angle of an earlier fort as its N boundary is overlain by the NW corner of the more substantial fort to the E. (9)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 6" Prov 1957
Page(s) :
Figs. :
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : (R G Collingwood)
Page(s) : 131-141
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 13, 1913
Source Number :
Source : Papcastle/field sheet
Source details :
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 2a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Hutchinson 1794 History of Cumberland
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 3
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : (E Birley)
Page(s) : 112, 121
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 63, 1963
Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Excavation Report June 1962 (MOW)
Page(s) : 2
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : (D A Charlesworth)
Page(s) : 102-114
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 65, 1965
Source Number : 6
Source : The place-names of Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 334
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : DOE (IAM) Ancient Monuments in England 1 1978
Page(s) : 16
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 16-Oct-92
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 9
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : (9a) Ainsworth, S. Papcastle Roman Fort and Vicus. Unpublished report.
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 399
Monument Start Date : 160
Monument Type : Fort, Fort Annexe
Evidence : Earthwork, Cropmark
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 120
Monument Start Date : 80
Monument Type : Fort
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit, Earthwork

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CU 276
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 22499
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CU 72
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 13 SW 8
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 875461
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : PAPCASTLE (DERVENTIO)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1912-01-01
End Date : 1912-12-31
Associated Activities : PAPCASTLE (DERVENTIO)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1961-01-01
End Date : 1962-12-31
Associated Activities : PAPCASTLE, (DERVENTIO)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1976-01-01
End Date : 1976-12-31
Associated Activities : THE BURROUGHS, PAPCASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1984-01-01
End Date : 1984-12-31
Associated Activities : PAPCASTLE VICUS (TIME TEAM)
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT DERVENTIO HOUSE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT DERVENTIO HOUSE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2004-01-01
End Date : 2004-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT BRAESIDE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT CRAIGINVAR
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : 'QUINTANA', PAPCASTLE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT 'WOODLEA'
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT PAPCASTLE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31