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HER Number:20323
Type of record:Monument


Roman trackway and buildings to north, excavated at Eastfield Farm in 1995. They represent outlying occupation at the edge of the Roman town of Old Winteringham.

Grid Reference:SE 944 211
Map Sheet:SE92SW
Map:Show location on Streetmap

Monument Types

  • BUILDING (RO:C2,C3,C4, Roman - 150 AD to 350 AD)
  • ROAD (RO:C2,C3,C4, Roman - 150 AD to 350 AD)

Protected Status - None

Associated Finds

  • ARROWHEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 200 AD)
  • PLANT MACRO REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STUD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPOON (Roman - 100 AD to 300 AD)
  • POTTERY ASSEMBLAGE (Roman - 140 AD to 300 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Roman - 150 AD to 300 AD)
  • AWL (Roman - 150 AD to 300 AD)
  • BOTTLE (Roman - 150 AD to 300 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 150 AD to 300 AD)
  • TEGULA (Roman - 150 AD to 300 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 150 AD to 300 AD)
  • WINDOW GLASS (Roman - 150 AD to 300 AD)

Associated Events

  • Evaluation at Eastfield Farm, Old Winteringham, North Lincolnshire, 1995 (Ref: WEF 95)
  • Proposed agricultural secure farm store, Eastfield farm, Sluice lane Winteringham (Ref: Job 659)
  • Warren Single Field Turbine, Horkstow - Desk Based Assessment
  • Watching brief at Eastfield Farm, Old Winteringham, North Lincolnshire, 1994 (Ref: WEF 94)

Full description

A watching brief at Eastfield Farm was carried out by Humberside Archaeology Unit in 1994, observing topsoil stripping for landfill. The following year, trial trenches were dug by the same contractor in order to determine the extent of the surviving archaeological remains.

The watching brief recorded an east-west trackway, defined by two parallel flanking ditches, running towards Ermine Street. The southernmost ditch (100) , 1.6m wide and 0.7m deep, with a 'U-shaped' profile, was traced for at least 45m. It contained a fill of grey brown sandy silt ( 1 01) . A large amount of finds were noted within the fill and these included oyster shell, animal bone, industrial residues, roughly worked stone and pottery dating from the late 2nd to 3rd century AD. Most of the pottery was recovered from a 1.5m long length of the ditch; the types present included samian, highly burnished greyware, coarse greyware, Black Burnished Ware types 1 and 2, unidentified whitewares, and colour-coated wares (both British and imported). The northern ditch (103) was at least 70m long by 1.6m wide and was over 0.5m deep. Its fill (104) was a grey brown clayey silt containing animal bone, fragments of tegulae and sherds of pottery, including fine whiteware, highly burnished greyware, coarse greyware, Dalesware, colour-coated wares and samian. A substantial quantity of worked stone had also been dumped into this ditch, which stone lay immediately south of Building 2. Between the ditches were traces of the surface of the trackway (105), a broad band of grey silt containing stone, gravel and cobbles. To the north and south of the ditches were areas of grey clayey silt (106) which also contained stone, animal bone and some pottery, and these may represent occupation horizons. A 10m- length of a third ditch (108), 1.2m wide, was recorded 2m north of, and parallel to, ditch 103, and may have been contemporary.

The 1995 excavations revealed two successive buildings in Trench 1, to the north of the trackway. The evidence for the earliest building (Building 1) comprised two perpendicular slots. They represented post trenches for the west and south walls of a building, the northern wall of which lay under the unexcavated area to the north. The first slot (25/33) was north-west/south-east aligned, 4m long and 0.45m wide with a maximum depth of 0.2m. It had gently sloping sides to a rounded base and a rounded southern terminal containing four irregular limestone pieces representing post-packing or a post-pad. The fill (26/34) of the slot was a loose orange-brown silty sand with occasional pebbles, upon which were seated, at regular intervals, limestone pieces (0.22m maximum diameter) acting as small post-pads or the packing for upright timbers. The second slot (83) was slightly wider than its counterpart (by 0.2m) and slightly deeper (by 0.05m). It had gently sloping sides (45°), leading to a relatively flat base. The feature terminated close to the end of slot 25/33, while it ran beyond the excavation edge to the east. A dark brown, sandy-loam fill (84) with occasional flint pieces and burnt limestone fragments filled the feature, and animal bone, pottery and oyster shell were recovered from it. A short distance south-east of the intersection between the two slots was a substantial near circular post pit (38), 0.96m in length by 0.83m wide and 0.3m deep. Its post-packing (87) remained in situ, consisting of a large flat limestone block (which had subsequently broken), and several smaller irregular limestone pieces, some of which displayed possible signs of having been burnt. A single flat slab, 0.03m thick, had been inserted on edge along the southern edge of the pit. Surrounding the stone was a firm brownish-grey clayey-sand (37) containing occasional small rounded pebbles. From this material a single sherd of 2nd or 3rd century pottery was recovered. This post-pit is assumed to represent a continuation of Building 1.

No recognisable floors or occupational surfaces were observed within Building 1, though the 0.6m-thick layer of brown sandy-loam (6/7) which sealed the remains of the building contained substantial amounts of general domestic refuse -animal bone, coal, roof tile, oyster shells, iron objects and pottery.

Immediately west of Building 1 lay a north-south aligned ditch (11) which continued beyond the trench edges to the north and south. It was 1.55m wide and 0.45m deep with gently sloping sides (approximately 45°) leading to a flat base. The fill (12) of ditch 11 was a soft grey-brown silty sand with occasional rounded pebbles, animal bone, oyster shell and pottery. The ditch and the wall of Building 1 were extremely close, and either the wall curved away from it or they were not contemporary; both, however were sealed beneath layer 6/7. The ditch may represent the western boundary of a plot of land which occupied lay at the intersection of Ermine Street and the track to the south. Set upon layer 6/7 were the remnants of a later building, constructed on stone foundations (Building 2 - Phase 2b). Building 2 lay on the same alignment as ditch 11, perhaps reflecting the continuation of a property boundary. A short curved length of limestone wall (9) ran from the eastern trench edge; it was 2.9m long by 0.48m wide and survived as a single course of unbonded irregular limestone blocks, 0.04-0.06m thick. It appeared to have been inserted into the underlying deposit 6/7, although no evidence of a construction cut was observed. After a short break, which appeared to be due to different levels of survival rather than a deliberate entrance gap, a further length of walling continued the line of 9. This continuation (10) was slightly better built, increasing in width from 0.24-0.9m as it ran south, although it to survived to only a single course of stones, 0.04-0.05m thick. Between them the two walls defined part of a building with straight sides and a least one curved end -such buildings have been seen elsewhere on sites of this period e.g. at Hibaldstow. The stone footings would have supported a timber superstructure, and following disuse of the building, they were extensively cleared, much of the stone work apparently ending up in the trackside ditch 102 to the south; the southern end of wall 10, however, may have been removed during earlier topsoil stripping operations.

No floor layers were recorded within the building, though certain internal features had survived (all context 28). These included a limestone hearth, constructed from flat, irregular, roughly-hewn limestone pieces laid a single course in height around and over the edges of a flat limestone surface. The majority of the stones showed evidence of extreme burning in situ and formed a rough square/rectangle measuring 1.25m by at least 0.6m, and were 0.1 m deep. Approximately 1 m south of the hearth a further limestone structure, constructed from similar pieces of material also showing evidence of burning in situ, may have been associated with the hearth. It was roughly square, measured 0.4m x 0.4m (continuing beyond the trench edge), and was laid over a rectangular area of a loose brown silty sand (82) with frequent charcoal inclusions, red burnt stone, mortar flecks and clay pieces, suggesting an ash pit or stoke hole. A single limestone block, 0.23m x 0.23m x 0.14m, and roughly worked, lay a short distance north of 82. This may represent a partition or, less likely, the south-eastern return of wall 10. A square area of loosely packed water rolled cobbles (30), measuring 0.4 by 0.4m and 0.06m thick, lay 1.4m south of the stone block and extended beyond the eastern trench edge. North of Building 2 were two areas of rough unworked limestone pieces (8, 23), probably the remnants of a metalled yard associated with the building.

The plot of land on which these buildings stood was at the junction of two thoroughfares - the east/west trackway and the northern part of Ermine Street. The buildings were comparable in form to those recorded in the main part of Old Winteringham and other Romano-British small towns. They are presumed to have been used for domestic occupation, and may represent the southern limit of urban expansion in the 3rd century. They were the first to experience abandonment during a period of economic decline, while the main part of the town continued into the 4th century.

31 pieces of Romano-British tile were recovered from the 1994 and 1995 excavations. All appeared to be tegula, including some shell tempered fabrics thought to date from the 3rd century. 1168 sherds of pottery showed a date range from the mid second century to the third century. Good quality kitchen and tablewares were present in the assemblage, including samian ware colour coated beakers. A cylindrical jar, a possible lead-glazed sherd, amphora sherds and a piece of imported 'Rhenish' colour coated ware were noted. Other recorded finds include a military iron arrowhead (RF27). It had a triple ribbed barbed head, with a short broken tang. A small group of iron tools and implements included a wedge, part of an awl, a blade fragment and a socketed ox-goad. A small number of cattle horn cores were evidence of bone working Two sherds of vessel glass and a fragment of cast window glass were associated with the buildings in Trench 1. Two pieces from rotary quernstones and fragments of stone roofing tile were also present.

A small assemblage of animal bone (393 fragments) collected from the Romano-British deposits incude domestic cattle, sheep/goat, pig, horse, goose and chicken. Plant remains were limited to charred seeds and grain of no interpretative value. [1]

A reference to the report on macrofossil plant remains from the 1994-5 excavation is listed in a regional gazetteer :

Site No 8522 Winteringham 95 EAU 95/25
Reference : Carrott, J, Issitt M, Jacques D, Johnstone C and Large F, 1995, 'Evaluation of biological remains from excavations at Winteringham, Humberside (site code WEF95). Reports from the Environmental Archaeology Unit, York 95/25, 4pp. [2]

<1> Atkinson, D, Foreman, M and Tibbles, J, 1995, Archaeological Works at Eastfield Farm, Winteringham 1994-95, 4-21, 28-31, figs 2-4, plates 1, 2 (REPORT - INTERIM, RESEARCH, SPECIALIST, ETC). SLS2876.

<2> Hall, A.R. & Huntley, J.P, 2007, A Review Of The Evidence For Macrofossil Plant Remains From Archaeological Deposits in Northern England, 426 (REPORT - INTERIM, RESEARCH, SPECIALIST, ETC). SLS3276.

Sources and further reading

<1>REPORT - INTERIM, RESEARCH, SPECIALIST, ETC: Atkinson, D, Foreman, M and Tibbles, J. 1995. Archaeological Works at Eastfield Farm, Winteringham 1994-95. March 1995. Bound A4 report. 4-21, 28-31, figs 2-4, plates 1, 2.
<2>REPORT - INTERIM, RESEARCH, SPECIALIST, ETC: Hall, A.R. & Huntley, J.P. 2007. A Review Of The Evidence For Macrofossil Plant Remains From Archaeological Deposits in Northern England. 2007. Bound A4 report. 426.

Related records

2068Part of: OLD WINTERINGHAM (Monument)