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HER Number:22646
Type of record:Monument


The construction elements of a Roman road were found in two evaluation trenches at Eastfield Farm, 2012. Associated pottery finds dated the earliest phase to the 1st century AD. The road appears to be the northern section of Ermine Street, close to the Roman port of Old Winteringham.

Grid Reference:SE 944 211
Map Sheet:SE92SW
Map:Show location on Streetmap

Monument Types

  • DITCH (RO:C1,C2,C3,C4, Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (RO:C1,C2,C3,C4, Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)

Protected Status - None

Associated Finds

  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PLANT MACRO REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 199 AD)
  • POTTERY ASSEMBLAGE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPOON (Roman - 43 AD to 199 AD)

Associated Events

  • Proposed potato store, Eastfield Farm, Winteringham

Full description

An archaeological evaluation consisting of five trial trenches was carried out by Pre-Construct Archaeology at Eastfield Farm, 2012. This work was in advance of the demolition of existing farm buildings and the construction of a new potato store. The construction elements of a Roman road, including a roadside ditch, were found in Trenches 4 & 5.

Trench 4 was orientated ENE-WSW, located between two of the farm buildings set for demolition; it was centred to SE94472117.

In the centre of the trench, two layers of silty sand overlying natural sand were recorded, and later interpreted as 'agger' material, forming the raised causeway for a Roman road. The lower deposit incorporated 8 sherds of mid 1st to early 2nd century pottery, as well as fragments of animal bone - cattle and sheep/goat. A shallow pit in the centre of the trench may have cut into the edge this lower deposit. The pit was c.2m wide, and the fill produced pottery of c. AD40 - 110, including 'native tradition' wares and decorated samian ware.

The upper agger deposit was measured at 0.2m deep, but contained no dating evidence.

Towards the eastern end of the trench, the agger deposits were overlain by a patch of pebbles and cobbles in a sand matrix. This was interpreted as road metalling. A sherd of samian ware, and other pottery dated to AD120 or later, were found on the surface. Above this, a layer of crushed limestone or decayed mortar was also part of the road construction.

At the western end of the trench, a shallow north-south linear feature cut into natural deposits. It was at least 2.45m wide and 0.21m deep. The fill contained Neronian pottery of AD54-68, including an amphora fragment. Charred emmer or spelt wheat was also identified in an environmental sample taken from this fill.

Above the shallow pit and the north-south linear feature were two buried deposits, a subsoil and a topsoil. The subsoil was found to contain pottery dating to the late 2nd century or later. Limestone fragments in a sand matrix overlay this subsoil at the west end of the trench - a possible yard surface. The buried topsoil covered this, and the road construction deposits, to a depth of 0.4m.

Trench 5 was 7m south of Trench 4, and on a NNW-SSE orientation. It was centred to SE94472115. A sequence of road deposits was recorded in this trench. Above natural sand, the lowest deposit was a compacted bed of pebbles and small limestone fragments, with individual rounded cobbles and larger, eroded limestone fragments overlying it. A sherd of samian ware on the surface of this deposit was of the 2nd century AD. Above this, a silty sand layer 0.11m thick, then another possible road surface made of flat limestone fragments lying 0.10m deep, in a matrix that was either crushed limestone and sand or decayed lime mortar. The possible surface was covered by a further 0.10m deep silty sand layer. No dating evidence was found in these 3 layers, but some animal bone was present.

A final upper road surface was identified in some central parts of the trench. It was composed of small to medium-sized limestone fragments in a silty sand matrix. This layer was 5.94m long, but had been partially removed by machining. As with the supposed road metalling layer in Trench 4, it was partially covered by patches of light yellow material, either
crushed degraded limestone or decayed lime mortar.

In the northern and southern parts of Trench 5, two layers corresponding to the agger deposits were also found, although no dating evidence was recovered.

Three linear ditches were present within Trench 5. To the south was a NE-SW roadside ditch, 1.56m wide and 0.70m deep, with three fill deposits. The lower fill contained late 1st - 2nd century AD pottery, two animal bones (on from a domestic dog), and an almost complete copper alloy spoon. The secondary fill was the largest, and contained 2nd century pottery and two animal bones (one bovine). Charred spelt wheat grains were present in a sample from this fill. Roundworm eggs were also identified, possibly either from human waste or from pigs.. The upper fill contained Roman pottery, but also a piece of late medieval Humber ware, suggesting that the ditch was open for a very long period.

To the north of the road deposits was a shallower ditch. Its fill contained pottery of the late 1st century, including Gaulish amphora fragments. Bones of domestic animals were also present. This could have been a northern roadside ditch, but the excavated section was E-W, so not parallel to the southern ditch, or the expected alignment of the road.

A central ditch was almost parallel to the northern ditch, and cut through the upper road surface. Its function was unclear, but it may have been a drainage channel to extend the life of the road in its final stages. Two large postholes to the north were undated, but probably post-medieval.

All the Trench 5 features were sealed by a buried topsoil up to 0.44m deep, containing redeposited (?) late Roman pottery, and a post-medieval sherd. [1]

<1> Parker, N., Savage, R.D., & Johnson, M., 2012, Proposed Potato Store, Eastfield Farm, Winteringham, North Lincolnshire, 1, 7-10, Figs 2, 14, 15 (REPORT - INTERIM, RESEARCH, SPECIALIST, ETC). SLS5769.

Sources and further reading

<1>REPORT - INTERIM, RESEARCH, SPECIALIST, ETC: Parker, N., Savage, R.D., & Johnson, M.. 2012. Proposed Potato Store, Eastfield Farm, Winteringham, North Lincolnshire. July 2012. Electronic file. 1, 7-10, Figs 2, 14, 15.

Related records

100Part of: ERMINE STREET (Monument)
2068Related to: OLD WINTERINGHAM (Monument)