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Historic England Research Records

Stanwix Settlement

Hob Uid: 11458
Location :
Cumbria
Carlisle
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : NY4030056900
Summary : The site of the civil settlement (vicus) at Stanwix. For so large a fort traces of civil occupation are remarkably slight. Both Horsley and the Bishop of Cloyne are vague regarding the position of the vicus but suggest that considerable signs of buildings were visible on the slope towards the river south-east of the fort (NY 403 569); the latter contending also that Carlisle was a British town occupied by the Romans and used as a vicus or suburb to the garrison. Evidence includes a first century AD civilian's tombstone; slight traces of second century AD occupation found in 1931 by F G Simpson about 200 ft west of the west rampart; and the discovery in 1930, in Kings Meadow below the fort, of the contents of a bronze-smith's workshop with both military and civilian products, dated to the mid second century AD. The apparent lack of 3rd-4th century AD material suggests that the Bishop of Cloyne may have been right and that the town of Carlisle came to serve in place of a vicus, inhibiting the growth of any civil settlement across the river in the later period. In addition, 'strong masonry' has been found in the churchyard associated with much Roman earthenware, and further Roman material from Stanwix bank.
More information : For so large a fort (Petriana) traces of civil occupation are remarkably slight . Both Horsley (a) and the Bishop of Cloyne (b) are vague regarding the position of the vicus but suggest that considerable signs of buildings were visible on the slope towards the river SE of the fort (NY 403569); the latter contending also that Carlisle was a British town occupied by the Romans and used as a vicus or suburb to the garrison. Evidence amounts to the finding of a 1st c. civilian's tombstone; slight traces of 2nd c. occupation found in 1931 by F G Simpson (2) about 200 ft W of the W rampart and the discovery, in 1930, in Kings Meadow below the fort, of the contents of a bronze-smith's workshop with both military and civilian products, dated to the mid 2nd c. The apparent lack of 3rd-4th c material suggests that the Bishop of Cloyne may have been right and that the town of Carlisle came to serve in place of a vicus, inhibiting the growth of any civil settlement across the river in the later period. (1-3)

In addition, 'strong masonry' has been found in the churchyard associated with much Roman earthenware, and further Roman material from Stanwix bank. (4)

No visible remains. (5)

Scheduled. (6)

Located on the English Heritage map of Hadrian's Wall 2010. (7)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : The frontier people of Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 98-100
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Source Number : 1a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Britannia Romana 1732 (J Horsley)
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Source Number : 1b
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Lysons Magna Britannia Vol 4 1816 (Bishop of Cloyne)
Page(s) : 139
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Source Number : 2
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details :
Page(s) : 147
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Vol(s) : 32, 1932
Source Number : 3
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details :
Page(s) : 69
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Vol(s) : 31, 1931
Source Number : 4
Source : Research on Hadrian's Wall
Source details :
Page(s) : 206
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Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 RE 09-FEB-72
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Source Number : 6
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 20-Nov-98
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Source Number : 7
Source : An Archaeological Map of Hadrian's Wall, 1:25,000 scale
Source details :
Page(s) :
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Vicus
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 28484
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Cumbria)
External Cross Reference Number : 500
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 45 NW 38
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1007792
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 11402
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, STANWIX (PETRIANA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1931-01-01
End Date : 1934-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 45 NW 38
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1972-02-09
End Date : 1972-02-09
Associated Activities : Primary, MILES MCINNES HALL, BOWLING GREEN, STANWIX
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1977-01-01
End Date : 1977-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, MILES MCINNES HALL, SCOTLAND ROAD
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1986-01-01
End Date : 1986-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 54 SCOTLAND STREET, STANWIX
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT ST. GEORGE'S CRESCENT
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WATERLOGGED CARLISLE
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 2012-01-01
End Date : 2012-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, UNIVERSITY OF CUMBRIA, BRAMPTON ROAD, STANWIX
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CARLISLE CRICKET CLUB
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2017-01-01
End Date : 2017-12-31