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Historic England Research Records

Monument Number 917009

Hob Uid: 917009
Location :
North Yorkshire
Ryedale
Stape
Grid Ref : SE7856090200
Summary : Possible enclosure occupying the north-east quadrant of Cawthorn Fort A and delineated by lines of banks to the south and west. Excavation of the southern line of banks in 2000 revealed a structure of two or three phases fronting onto a probable street to the south. Excavated finds included Romanised pottery and glass, melon beads. The lack of features within the area of the enclosure may be significant, possibly indicating a specific purpose, for example as an animal pen.
More information : This site has been re-assessed in connection with RCHME's survey and
publication of Roman Camps in England. The following descriptive
account is taken from the published text.

SE 7856 9020 (FCE). Previously recorded with SE 79 SE 45; now
assigned unique identity.

A low bank, nowhere more than 0.5 m high, defines two sides of a sub-
rectangular enclosure which takes in most of the NE corner of
Cawthorn fort A (SE 79 SE 63). Its layout suggests that it may be
later in date than the other internal features of the fort, but this
cannot be demonstrated without excavation its function is unknown.
Full information is included in the NMR Archive. (1)

An air photographic evaluation (2-3) was undertaken by the EH Aerial Survey section, in conjunction with the Metric Survey section, as part of a wider research project investigating Cawthorn Camps from 1998-2002. In addition to the air photographic work, this research has included geophysical survey, topographic survey of Fort A and Annexe B, and two seasons of excavation. (4-5)

Photogrammetric survey using specially commissioned, large scale air photographs has enabled the production of a detailed plan of the earthwork remains at a scale of 1:500 and an accuracy of 10cm or below. A double line of east-west banks was recorded where, previously, only one line had been identified, as described above by authority 1; these banks are very slight and fragmentary. (3)

It was suggested by authority 1 that this set of east-west banks, together with a north-south bank to the west, define an enclosure partitioning off the north-eastern quadrant of Fort A and that this enclosure was possibly of later date than the other internal features. This may still be the case, however, the east-west banks in particular share a resemblance with the streets bordered with enclosures in the south-east quadrant of Annexe B. Indeed, the excavation of a trench across these banks (described in more detail below) concluded that the banks did define a street. Also, the orientation of these banks with other of the embanked features in Fort D may imply that they were layed out as one general phase; for example, they share a similar orientation to an enclosure located at SE 78478 90158, just to the west. Another factor to consider is that if the banks were later one might expect them to be better preserved than they are. It may be significant that the area within the north-east 'enclosure' contains little evidence of turf structures, or indeed any feature, implying that it may have had a specific use, for example, possibly as an animal enclosure. (3)

The excavations undertaken in 1999-2000 by Dr P.Wilson (EH) comprised ten trenches three of which investigated turf structures in Fort A and Annexe B. The trench in Fort A was situated across the line of east-west banks discussed above at a point where a possible enclosure had been identified. This turned out to be a building of two or three phases. Some romanised pottery was found outside the building, along with hand-made pottery, and three glass, melon geads were found in its interior. The building appeared to front onto a street to the south. The two other turf structures investigated, both in Annexe B, also appear to be Roman in date. One produced pottery and a melon bead fragment, this latter object being the only find of certain Roman date. The other structure proved to have two phases and produced an archaeo-magnetic date of late 1st and early 2nd century AD. (6-7)


Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Humphrey Welfare and Vivien Swan/1994/RCHME: Roman Camps in England Project.
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Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Stone, J. 1999. 'Cawthorn Camps, North Yorkshire. Air Photograph Assessment' (Phase I)
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Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Stone, J. 1999. 'Cawthorn Camps, North Yorkshire. Air Photograph Assessment' (Phase II)
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Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Wilson, P. and Lee, G. 1999. 'Cawthorn Camps, North Yorkshire. Design for Trial Excavations'
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Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Wilson, P. and Lee, G. 2000. 'Cawthorn Camps, North Yorkshire. Assessment and Revised Project Design'
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Source Number : 6
Source : Ryedale historian
Source details : Wilson, P. and Lee, G. 2000-1. 'Cawthorn Camps; Trial Excavations 1999'
Page(s) : 05-Aug
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 20
Source Number : 7
Source : Ryedale historian
Source details : Wilson, P. and Lee, G. 2002-4. 'Cawthorn Camps 2000 - Interim Report'
Page(s) : 30-Mar
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 21
Source Number :
Source : Cawthorn/profiles key
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Source : Cawthorn Camps, North Yorkshire: Air Photograph Evaluation
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Source : Cawthorn, 1975-77/ink survey
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Enclosure, Road, Building
Evidence : Earthwork

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : NY 518
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 24436
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SE 79 SE 64
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1012169
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: CAWTHORN ROMAN CAMP, FORTS AND ANNEXE
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1975-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: CAWTHORN CAMPS AIR PHOTOGRAPH EVALUATION, PHASE I
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 1999-08-01
End Date : 1999-11-01
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: CAWTHORN CAMPS AIR PHOTOGRAPH EVALUATION, PHASE II
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31