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Historic England Research Records

Benwell Vicus

Hob Uid: 25174
Location :
Newcastle upon Tyne
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : NZ2160064600
Summary : The site of the vicus of Benwell (CONDERCUM) fort. The vallum and ditch are still visible as earthworks, there is known to have been a bath house, mansio and temple on the site, some trial trenching has been carried out.
More information : [NZ 216646]. The external settlement at Condercum lay partly to the north and partly to the south of the Vallum, and in the later second century covered it, the ditch being deliberately filled and obliterated. Little is known of the buildings in detail, apart from the bathhouse, mansio and temple of Antenociticus (66, 68 and 69 respectively). (1)

No visible remains other than those noted. (2)

The structural evidence suggests a vicus gathered around the road south from the fort, concentrating on the site of the causeway across the Vallum and extending a short distance on each side over the course of the filled ditch and south along the road. There is evidence that this area contained temples and a cemetery. The vicus probably originated in timber under Severus, and was rebuilt in stone within the first half of the century. There is little evidence to suggest an earlier settlement on the site although there may have possibly been one further down the hill. The later history of the vicus is marked by another major fire (A.D. 296?), a second rebuild in stone and the reappearance of a gateway. The end is unknown. (3)

In 1970, the ground running south from Pendower House [NZ 214646] was prepared for the construction of a new Open Air School. The site can be presumed to fall within the area of the vicus, extending almost to the bath-house (NZ 26 SW/8.2]. The site was visited by Smith who saw several open trenches in the early stages of the work, but none showed anything that could be identified as Roman structural remains, and the conclusion was that the slope had most probably been landscaped in the 19th.c. and any Roman levels destroyed in the process. (4)

Trial trenching in advance of development W of Pendower school, c 150m W of the SW corner of the fort, located no trace of the vicus. The vallum, the ditch of which was unsuccessfully sought, must run at least 20m. N. of its hitherto estimated line W. of the fort. (5)

NZ 216647. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Condercum Roman Vallum crossing and temple, Benwell. Guardianship. (6)

NZ 216 647 etc. Condercum Roman fort, Benwell. Scheduled No TW/28. Scheduled area includes the preserved Vallum Crossing and Temple of Antenociticus. (7)

Survey of the extent and preservation of the known archaeological deposits of the fort and its environs; includes a full bibliography for the site. (8)

Located on the English Heritage map of Hadrian's Wall 2010. (9)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Handbook to the Roman Wall, 1966, 12th edn (J Collingwood Bruce)
Page(s) : 53
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 RWE 04-JAN-1968
Page(s) :
Figs. :
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : The frontier people of Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 76
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : Council for British Archaeology Group 3: Archaeological newsbulletin for Northumberland, Cumberland, Durham, Westmorland and Lancashire-north-of-the-sands
Source details : (D J Smith)
Page(s) : 10
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 3(1), 1972
Source Number : 5
Source : Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies
Source details :
Page(s) : 280
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 10, 1979
Source Number : 6
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Ancient Monuments in England, 1978, vol 1
Page(s) : 72
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : County list of Scheduled Monuments : March 1994
Source details : Tyne and Wear
Page(s) : 11
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : The Roman Fort at Benwell and its Environs: a survey of the extent and preservation of the archaeological deposits, Tyne and Wear Museums, 1991
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
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Source Number : 9
Source : An Archaeological Map of Hadrian's Wall, 1:25,000 scale
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Vicus
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Guardianship Number
External Cross Reference Number : 67
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : TW 28
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NZ 26 SW 65
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1156375
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 25121
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1156361
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1156389
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1156397
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, BENWELL (CONDERCUM)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1926-01-01
End Date : 1929-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 26 SW 65
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1968-01-04
End Date : 1968-01-04
Associated Activities : Primary, TRINITY OAKFIELD SCHOOL, CONDERCUM ROAD, BENWELL
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31